How do I use the instanceof keyword?

To check whether an object is of a particular type (class or interface type) you can use instanceof operator. The instanceof operator is used only for object reference variable. x instanceof y can be read as x is-a y.

The instanceof returns true if the reference variable being tested is of the type being compared to. It will still return true if the object being compared is assignment compatible with the type on the right.

For interface type, an object is said to be of a particular interface type (meaning it will pass the instanceof test) if any of the object’s superclasses implement the interface.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class InstanceofDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Body body = new Body();
        Hand hand = new Hand();
        Nail nail = new Nail();
        Shoes shoe = new Shoes();

        if (body instanceof Man) {
            System.out.println("body is a Man");
        }

        if (hand instanceof Man) {
            System.out.println("hand is a Man too");
        }

        if (hand instanceof Body) {
            System.out.println("hand is a Body");
        }

        // it should be return false
        if (hand instanceof Nail) {
            System.out.println("hand is a Nail");
        } else {
            System.out.println("hand is not a Nail");
        }

        if (nail instanceof Man) {
            System.out.println("nail is a Man too");
        }

        if (nail instanceof Hand) {
            System.out.println("nail is a Hand");
        }
        if (nail instanceof Body) {
            System.out.println("nail is a Body too");
        }

        // it should return false, cause Shoes is not implements Man
        if (shoe instanceof Man) {
            System.out.println("shoe is a Man");
        } else {
            System.out.println("shoe is not a Man");
        }

        // compile error. cannot test against class in different
        // class hierarchies.
        //
        //if (shoe instanceof Body) {
        //}

    }

}

interface Man {
}

class Body implements Man {
}

// indirect implements Man
class Hand extends Body {
}

// indirect implements Man
class Nail extends Hand {
}

class Shoes {
}

The result of the code snippet above:

body is a Man
hand is a Man too
hand is a Body
hand is not a Nail
nail is a Man too
nail is a Hand
nail is a Body too
shoe is not a Man

How do I use the relational operator in Java?

Relational operators used to compare any combination of integers, floating-point numbers, or characters. The result of relational operators is always in a boolean value, true or false. It is mostly used in an if statement test.

There are four relational operators in Java:

  • > greater than
  • >= greater than or equal to
  • < less than
  • <= less than or equal to
package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class RelationalDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int value1 = 10, value2 = 25;
        int age = 15;
        double salary = 1000d;
        char char1 = 'd', char2 = 'f';

        if (value1 > value2) {
            System.out.format("%d is greater than %d %n", value1, value2);
        } else {
            System.out.format("%d is greater than %d %n", value2, value1);
        }

        if (age >= 12) {
            System.out.format("Hey, I am not a kid anymore %n");
        }

        if (char1 < char2) {
            System.out.format("%c is less than %c %n", char1, char2);
        } else {
            System.out.format("%c is less than %c %n", char2, char1);
        }

        if (salary <= 3000d) {
            System.out.println("Entry-level Staff");
        }
    }
}

An here are the result of the program:

25 is greater than 10 
Hey, I am not a kid anymore 
d is less than f 
Entry-level Staff

How do I use the equality operator in Java?

Equality operator is used to compare two similar things (numbers, characters, boolean, primitives and object references). Equality operator will always result in boolean value (true or false).

For object reference, it will return true if only both reference variables refer to the same object.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class EqualityDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int value1 = 10, value2 = 10, number1 = 10;
        char a = 'a', b = 'b';
        double number2 = 10d;
        Cat kitty = new Cat("Kitty");
        Cat kitten = new Cat("Kitty");
        Cat sweetie = kitty;

        if (value1 == value2) {
            System.out.println("Equal");
        }

        if (a != b) {
            System.out.println("Not Equal");
        }

        // though it have different type, but it have same value
        if (number1 == number2) {
            System.out.println("Equal");
        }

        // it's not refer to the same object, so it will return
        // false
        if (kitty == kitten) {
            System.out.format("(kitty == kitten) = " + (kitty == kitten));
        } else {
            System.out.println("(kitty == kitten) = " + (kitty == kitten));
        }

        // it's refer to the same object, so it will return true
        if (kitty == sweetie) {
            System.out.println("(kitty == sweetie) = " + (kitty == sweetie));
        }

        if (true != false) {
            System.out.println("true != false");
        }

    }
}

class Cat {
    private String name;

    Cat(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
}

And here are the result of the program:

Equal
Not Equal
Equal
(kitty == kitten) = false
(kitty == sweetie) = true
true != false

How do I use the && operator in Java?

The && operator also known as conditional-AND operator or short circuit AND. This operator exhibit “short-circuiting” behavior, which means that the second operand is evaluated only if needed.

The && operator evaluate only boolean values. For an AND (&&) expression to be true, both operands must be true. If the first operand resolves false, then the && operator will not evaluate the second operand, because it already know the complete expression will return false.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class ConditionalANDDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // second operand (2<3) is not evaluated, because the first
        // operand return false the result of complete expression
        // can't be true
        boolean a = (5 < 3) && (2 < 3);

        // first operand return true, second operand is evaluated
        // to check the result of the second expression if second
        // operand resolves to true, the complete expression return
        // false, otherwise return false
        boolean b = (1 == 1) && (2 < 3);
        boolean c = (1 == 1) && (5 < 3);

        System.out.println("result a: " + a);
        System.out.println("result b: " + b);
        System.out.println("result c: " + c);
    }
}

The result of the code snippet:

result a: false
result b: true
result c: false

How do I define a constant variable?

To define a constant in Java, use final modifier which combined with static modifier. The final modifier indicates that the value of this field cannot change.

If you change the value of the constant, you need to recompile the class to get the current value. Other feature in Java that provide similar functionality is enumeration (a list of named constants). You can simply create an enumeration by using the enum keyword.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class ConstantDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int sunday = DayConstant.SUNDAY;
        System.out.println("Sunday = " + sunday);

        String dozen = MeasureConstant.DOZEN;
        System.out.println("Dozen  = " + dozen);
    }
}

class DayConstant {
    public final static int SUNDAY = 0;
    public final static int MONDAY = 1;
    public final static int TUESDAY = 2;
    public final static int WEDNESDAY = 3;
    public final static int THURSDAY = 4;
    public final static int FRIDAY = 5;
    public final static int SATURDAY = 6;
}

class MeasureConstant {
    final static String UNIT = "unit";
    final static String DOZEN = "dozen";
}

How do I use the “return” keyword in Java?

The return keyword is used to return from a method when its execution is complete. When a return statement is reached in a method, the program returns to the code that invoked it.

A method can return a value or reference type or does not return a value. If a method does not return a value, the method must be declared void and it doesn’t need to contain a return statement.

If a method declare to return a value, then it must use the return statement within the body of method. The data type of the return value must match the method’s declared return type.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class ReturnDemo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int z = ReturnDemo.calculate(2, 3);
        System.out.println("z = " + z);

        Dog dog = new Dog("Spaniel", "Doggie");
        System.out.println(dog.getDog());
    }

    public static int calculate(int x, int y) {
        // return an int type value
        return x + y;
    }

    public void print() {
        System.out.println("void method");

        // it does not need to contain a return statement, but it
        // may do so
        return;
    }

    public String getString() {
        return "return String type value";

        // try to execute a statement after return a value will
        // cause a compile-time error.
        //
        // String error = "error";
    }
}

class Dog {
    private String breed;
    private String name;

    Dog(String breed, String name) {
        this.breed = breed;
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Dog getDog() {
        // return Dog type
        return this;
    }

    public String toString() {
        return "breed: " + breed.concat("name: " + name);
    }
}

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How do I use the “this” keyword in Java?

Every instance method has a variable with the name this that refers to the current object for which the method is being called. You can refer to any member of the current object from within an instance method or a constructor by using this keyword.

Each time an instance method is called, the this variable is set to reference the particular class object to which it is being applied. The code in the method will then relate to the specific members of the object referred to by this keyword.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class RemoteControl {
    private String channelName;
    private int channelNum;
    private int minVolume;
    private int maxVolume;

    RemoteControl() {
    }

    RemoteControl(String channelName, int channelNum) {
        // use the this keyword to call another constructor in the 
        // same class
        this(channelName, channelNum, 0, 0);
    }

    RemoteControl(String channelName, int channelNum, int minVol, int maxVol) {
        this.channelName = channelName;
        this.channelNum = channelNum;
        this.minVolume = minVol;
        this.maxVolume = maxVol;
    }

    public void changeVolume(int x, int y) {
        this.minVolume = x;
        this.maxVolume = y;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        RemoteControl remote = new RemoteControl("ATV", 10);

        // when the following line is executed, the this variable in
        // changeVolume() is refer to remote object.
        remote.changeVolume(0, 25);
    }
}

How do I invoke superclass constructor?

This example shows you how to use the super keyword to call a superclass constructor. The Female class constructor calls its superclass constructor and initializes its own initialization parameters. The call to the superclass constructor must be done in the first line of the constructor in the subclass.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Human {
    private String gender;
    private int age;

    public Human(String gender) {
        this.gender = gender;
    }
}

To call a superclass constructor we call super(). In the case below we call the superclass constructor with one string variable as a parameter.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Female extends Human {
    private String hairStyle;

    public Female(String hairStyle, String gender) {
        super(gender);
        this.hairStyle = hairStyle;
    }
}

How do I create and implement abstract class?

Abstract class is a class that have one or more methods declared, but not defined. Abstract class cannot have instances. This class uses in inheritance to take advantage of polymorphism. To declare that a class is abstract, use the abstract keyword in front of the class keyword in the class definition.

Methods in abstract class that have no definition are called abstract methods. The declaration for an abstract method ends with a semicolon and you specify the method with the abstract keyword to identify it as such. The implementation is left to the sub classes.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public abstract class Animal {
    private String species;

    public Animal(String species) {
        this.species = species;
    }

    public abstract void makeASound();

    public String getSpecies() {
        return species;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Animal pig = new Pig("Warthog");
        pig.makeASound();
    }
}

The Pig class extends the Animal class. Because the Animal class contains an abstract method makeASound() the Pig class must implements this method or else the Pig will also become an abstract class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Pig extends Animal {

    public Pig(String species) {
        super(species);
    }

    @Override
    public void makeASound() {
        System.out.println("oink oink");
    }
}

How do I override a method in Java?

If a subclass has a method that have the same signature with a method in its superclass, then it’s an overriding method. Override inherited methods allow subclasses to provide specialized implementation for those methods. The overriding method has the same name, number and type of arguments, and return value as the method it overrides.

The overriding method can have a different throws clause as long as it doesn’t specify any types not specified by the throws clause in the overridden method. Also, the access specifier for the overriding method can allow more but not less access than the overridden method.

For example, a protected method in the superclass can be made public but not private. A subclass cannot override methods that are declared final in the superclass. A subclass must override methods that are declared abstract in the superclass, or the subclass itself must be abstract.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Car {
    private String type;
    private String brand;
    private String model;
    private int numberOfSeat;

    public Car() {
    }

    public Car(String type, String brand, String model) {
        this.type = type;
        this.brand = brand;
        this.model = model;
    }

    public String getType() {
        return type;
    }

    public void setType(String type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    public String getBrand() {
        return brand;
    }

    public void setBrand(String brand) {
        this.brand = brand;
    }

    public String getModel() {
        return model;
    }

    public void setModel(String model) {
        this.model = model;
    }

    public int getNumberOfSeat() {
        return numberOfSeat;
    }

    public void setNumberOfSeat(int numberOfSeat) {
        this.numberOfSeat = numberOfSeat;
    }

    public String getCarInfo() {
        return"Type: " + type
                + "; Brand: " + brand
                + "; Model: " + model;
    }
}

In the Truck class we override the getCarInfo() method to provide more information about the truck object. We can also add an @Override annotation to an overriding method.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Truck extends Car {
    private int loadCapacity;

    public Truck() {
    }

    public Truck(String type, String brand, String model) {
        super(type, brand, model);
    }

    public int getLoadCapacity() {
        return loadCapacity;
    }

    public void setLoadCapacity(int loadCapacity) {
        this.loadCapacity = loadCapacity;
    }

    @Override
    public String getCarInfo() {
        return "Type: " + getType()
                + "; Brand: " + getBrand()
                + "; Model: " + getModel()
                + "; Load capacity: " + getLoadCapacity();
    }
}