How to truncate a string after n number of words?

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class GetNumberOfWordsFromString {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String text = "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.";

        String one = truncateAfterWords(1, text);
        System.out.println("1 = " + one);

        String two = truncateAfterWords(2, text);
        System.out.println("2 = " + two);

        String four = truncateAfterWords(4, text);
        System.out.println("4 = " + four);
    }

    /**
     * Truncate a string after n number of words.
     *
     * @param numberOfWords number of words to truncate after.
     * @param longString the long string.
     * @return truncated long string.
     */
    public static String truncateAfterWords(int numberOfWords, String longString)     {
        return longString.replaceAll("^((?:\W*\w+){" +
                numberOfWords + "}).*$", "$1");
    }
}

The result of the snippet:

1 = The
2 = The quick
4 = The quick brown fox

How to remove non ASCII characters from a string?

The code snippet below remove the characters from a string that is not inside the range of x20 and x7E ASCII code. The regex below strips non-printable and control characters. But it also keeps the linefeed character n (x0A) and the carriage return r (x0D) characters.

package org.kodejava.example.regex;

public class ReplaceNonAscii {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String str = "Thè quïck brøwn føx jumps over the lãzy dôg.";
        System.out.println("str = " + str);

        // Replace all non ascii chars in the string.
        str = str.replaceAll("[^\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]", "");
        System.out.println("str = " + str);
    }
}

Snippet output:

str = Thè quïck brøwn føx jumps over the lãzy dôg.
str = Th quck brwn fx jumps over the lzy dg.

How do I write embedded flag expression?

It’s also possible to enable various flags using embedded flag expressions. Embedded flag expressions are an alternative to the two-argument version of compile, and are specified in the regular expression itself. The example below is use (?i) flag expression to enable case-insensitive matching.

Another flag expressions are listed below:

  • (?x), equivalent with Pattern.COMMENTS
  • (?m), equivalent with Pattern.MULTILINE
  • (?s), equivalent with Pattern.DOTTAL
  • (?u), equivalent with Pattern.UNICODE_CASE
  • (?d), equivalent with Pattern.UNIX_LINES

 

package org.kodejava.example.util.regex;

import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;

public class EmbeddedFlagDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //
        // Define regex which starting with (?i) to enable 
        // case-insensitive matching
        //
        String regex = "(?i)the";
        String text = "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog";

        //
        // Obtain the required matcher
        //
        Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(regex);        
        Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(text);

        //
        // Find every match and print it
        //
        while (matcher.find()) {
            System.out.format("Text "%s" found at %d to %d.%n",
                    matcher.group(), matcher.start(), 
                    matcher.end());
        }
    }
}

The result of the program is:

Text "The" found at 0 to 3.
Text "the" found at 31 to 34.

How do I count the number of capturing groups?

Capturing groups are numbered by counting the opening parentheses from left to right. To find out how many groups are present in the expression, call the groupCount() method on a matcher object. The groupCount() method returns an int showing the number of capturing groups present in the matcher’s pattern.

package org.kodejava.example.util.regex;

import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;

public class CountingGroupDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Define regex to find the word 'quick' or 'lazy' or 'dog'
        String regex = "(quick)|(lazy)|(dog)";
        String text = "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog";

        // Obtain the required matcher
        Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(regex);
        Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(text);

        int groupCount = matcher.groupCount();
        System.out.println("Number of group = " + groupCount);

        // Find every match and print it
        while (matcher.find()) {
            for (int i = 0; i <= groupCount; i++) {
                // Group i substring
                System.out.println("Group " + i + ": " + matcher.group(i));
            }
        }
    }
}

The result of the program:

Number of group = 3
Group 0: quick
Group 1: quick
Group 2: null
Group 3: null
Group 0: lazy
Group 1: null
Group 2: lazy
Group 3: null
Group 0: dog
Group 1: null
Group 2: null
Group 3: dog

How do I compile character classes with quantifier?

This example show you how to attach quantifier to character classes or capturing group in regular expressions.

package org.kodejava.example.util.regex;

import java.util.regex.Pattern;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;

public class CombineWithQuantifier {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //
        // [abc]{3} --> apply quantifier in character class.
        // Find 'a' or 'b' or 'c', three times in a row.
        //
        // (abc){3} --> apply quantifier in capturing group.
        // Find 'abc', three times in a row.
        //
        // abc{3} --> apply quantifier in character class.
        // Find character 'c', three times in a row.
        //
        String[] regexs = {"[abc]{3}", "(abc){3}", "abc{3}"};
        String text = "abcabcabcabcaba";

        for (String regex : regexs) {
            Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(regex);
            Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(text);

            //
            // Find every match and print it
            //
            System.out.println("------------------------------");
            System.out.format("Regex:  %s %n", regex);
            while (matcher.find()) {
                System.out.format("Text "%s" found at %d to %d.%n",
                        matcher.group(), matcher.start(),
                        matcher.end());
            }
        }
    }
}

This program will print the following output:

Regex:  [abc]{3} 
Text "abc" found at 0 to 3.
Text "abc" found at 3 to 6.
Text "abc" found at 6 to 9.
Text "abc" found at 9 to 12.
Text "aba" found at 12 to 15.
------------------------------
Regex:  (abc){3} 
Text "abcabcabc" found at 0 to 9.
------------------------------
Regex:  abc{3}