How to get some information about Path object?

The java.nio.Path provides some methods to obtain information about the Path. For example you can get information about the file name, the parent and the root path. For these you can call the getFileName(), getParent() and getRoot() method respectively.

You can also get the number of elements that make up this Path using the getNameCount() method. And to get the sub-path you can use the subpath() method and specify the starting and ending indexes. The code snippet below demonstrate to you how to get these information.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;

public class PathInfoExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a Path for Windows notepad program.
        Path notepad = Paths.get("C:/Windows/System32/notepad.exe");

        // Get some information about the Path object.
        System.out.printf("File name         : %1$s%n", notepad.getFileName());
        System.out.printf("Name count        : %1$s%n", notepad.getNameCount());
        System.out.printf("Parent path       : %1$s%n", notepad.getParent());
        System.out.printf("Root path         : %1$s%n", notepad.getRoot());
        System.out.printf("Sub path from root: %1$s%n", notepad.subpath(0, 2));
    }
}

This code will print something like:

File name         : notepad.exe
Name count        : 3
Parent path       : C:\Windows\System32
Root path         : C:\
Sub path from root: Windows\System32

How do I create a java.nio.Path?

The following code snippet show you how to create a Path. A Path (java.nio.Path) in an interface that represent a location in a file system, such as C:/Windows/System32 or /usr/bin.

To create a Path we can use the java.nio.Paths.get(String first, String... more) methods. Below you can see how to create a Path by passing only the first string and by passing a first string plus some varargs string.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;

public class PathCreate {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a Path that represents Windows installation location.
        Path windows = Paths.get("C:/Windows");

        // Check to see if the path represent a directory.
        if (Files.isDirectory(windows)) {
            // do something
        }

        // Create a Path that represent Windows programs installation location.
        Path programFiles = Paths.get("C:/Program Files");
        Files.isDirectory(programFiles);

        // Create a Path that represent the notepad.exe program
        Path notepad = Paths.get("C:/Windows", "System32", "notepad.exe");

        // Check to see if the path represent an executable file.
        if (Files.isExecutable(notepad)) {
            // do something
        }
    }
}

How do I copy a file in JDK 7?

In this example you’ll see how to copy a file using the new API provided in the JDK 7. The first step is to define the source and the target of the file to be copied. For this we can use the Path class. To create an instance of Path we use the Paths.get() method by passing the path information as the arguments.

Next we can configure the file copy operation option. For this we can define it as an array of CopyOtion. We can use copy option such as StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING and StandardCopyOption.COPY_ATTRIBUTES.

Finally to copy the file we use the Files.copy() method. We give three arguments to this method, they are the source file, the target file and the copy options information.

Let’s see the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.file.*;

public class NioFileCopyDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Define the source and target of the file to be copied.
        Path source = Paths.get("C:/resources/data.txt");
        Path target = Paths.get("C:/resources/data.bak");

        // Define the options used in the file copy process.
        CopyOption[] options = new CopyOption[] {
            StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING,
            StandardCopyOption.COPY_ATTRIBUTES
        };

        try {
            // Copy file from source to target using the defined 
            // configuration.
            Files.copy(source, target, options);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

How do I use the DosFileAttributes class?

This example show you how to use the DosFileAttributes class to get file attribute that support DOS file system. This class extends the BasicFileAttributes class. Using the DosFileAttributes class we can read file attributes using isArchive(), isHidden(), isReadOnly() and isSystem() methods.

Let’s see the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.attribute.DosFileAttributes;

public class DosFileAttributeExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String path = "D:/resources/data.txt";

        Path file = Paths.get(path);
        DosFileAttributes attr = Files.readAttributes(file, DosFileAttributes.class);

        System.out.println("isArchive()  = " + attr.isArchive());
        System.out.println("isHidden()   = " + attr.isHidden());
        System.out.println("isReadOnly() = " + attr.isReadOnly());
        System.out.println("isSystem()   = " + attr.isSystem());
    }
}

The output of the code snippet:

isArchive()  = true
isHidden()   = false
isReadOnly() = true
isSystem()   = false

How do I set the value of file attributes?

This code snippet show you an example on how to set the value of file attributes. Here we will set the DosFileAttributes. To set the value of file attributes we use the Files.setAttributes() method. To set DosFileAttributes we can use the following attributes: "dos:archive", "dos:hidden", "dos:readonly" and "dos:system".

For details let’s see the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.attribute.DosFileAttributes;

public class UpdateDosFileAttributesExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String path = "D:/resources/data.txt";
        Path file = Paths.get(path);

        // Get current Dos file attributes and print it.
        DosFileAttributes attr = Files.readAttributes(file, DosFileAttributes.class);
        printAttributes(attr);

        // Set a new file attributes.
        Files.setAttribute(file, "dos:archive", false);
        Files.setAttribute(file, "dos:hidden", false);
        Files.setAttribute(file, "dos:readonly", false);
        Files.setAttribute(file, "dos:system", false);

        // Read the newly set file attributes and print it.
        attr = Files.readAttributes(file, DosFileAttributes.class);
        printAttributes(attr);
    }

    /**
     * Print the DosFileAttributes information.
     *
     * @param attr DosFileAttributes.
     */
    private static void printAttributes(DosFileAttributes attr) {
        System.out.println("isArchive()  = " + attr.isArchive());
        System.out.println("isHidden()   = " + attr.isHidden());
        System.out.println("isReadOnly() = " + attr.isReadOnly());
        System.out.println("isSystem()   = " + attr.isSystem());
        System.out.println("----------------------------------------");
    }
}

The output of the code snippet:

isArchive()  = true
isHidden()   = true
isReadOnly() = true
isSystem()   = true
----------------------------------------
isArchive()  = false
isHidden()   = false
isReadOnly() = false
isSystem()   = false
----------------------------------------

How do I write a text file in JDK 7?

In JDK 7 we can write all lines from a List of String into a file using the Files.write() method. We need to provide the Path of the file we want to write to, the List of strings and the charsets. Each line is a char sequence and is written to the file in sequence with each line terminated by the platform’s line separator.

Let’s see the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class WriteTextFile {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Path file = Paths.get("D:/resources/data.txt");

        List<String> lines = new ArrayList<>();
        lines.add("Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing ");
        lines.add("and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the ");
        lines.add("industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, ");
        lines.add("when an unknown printer took a galley of type and ");
        lines.add("scrambled it to make a type specimen book.");

        try {
            // Write lines of text to a file.
            Files.write(file, lines, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

This code snippet will create a file called data.txt under the resources folder. Please make sure that this folder is exist before you tried to run the code.

How do I get file basic attributes?

This example you’ll learn how to get file’s basic attributes. Basic file attributes are attributes that are common to many file systems and consist of mandatory and optional file attributes as defined by the BasicFileAttributes interface.

The file’s basic attributes include file’s date time information such as the creation time, last access time, last modified time. You can also check whether the file is a directory, a regular file, a symbolic link or something else. You can also get the size of the file.

Let’s see the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.attribute.BasicFileAttributes;

public class FileAttributesDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String path = "D:/resources/data.txt";

        Path file = Paths.get(path);
        BasicFileAttributes attr = Files.readAttributes(file, BasicFileAttributes.class);
        System.out.println("creationTime     = " + attr.creationTime());
        System.out.println("lastAccessTime   = " + attr.lastAccessTime());
        System.out.println("lastModifiedTime = " + attr.lastModifiedTime());

        System.out.println("isDirectory      = " + attr.isDirectory());
        System.out.println("isOther          = " + attr.isOther());
        System.out.println("isRegularFile    = " + attr.isRegularFile());
        System.out.println("isSymbolicLink   = " + attr.isSymbolicLink());
        System.out.println("size             = " + attr.size());
    }
}

The output of the code snippet:

creationTime     = 2017-11-28T00:08:55.290206Z
lastAccessTime   = 2017-11-28T00:08:55.290206Z
lastModifiedTime = 2017-11-28T00:08:55.291206Z
isDirectory      = false
isOther          = false
isRegularFile    = true
isSymbolicLink   = false
size             = 574

How do I set file last modified time?

In the following code snippet you will learn how to update file’s last modified date/time. To update the last modified date/time you can use the java.nio.file.Files.setLastModifiedTime() method. This method takes two arguments. The first arguments is a Path object that represent a file. And the second arguments is the new modified date in a FileTime object.

Let’s try the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.attribute.BasicFileAttributes;
import java.nio.file.attribute.FileTime;

public class SettingFileTimeStamps {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String path = "D:/resources/data.txt";
        Path file = Paths.get(path);

        BasicFileAttributes attr = Files.readAttributes(file, BasicFileAttributes.class);
        System.out.println("lastModifiedTime() = " + attr.lastModifiedTime());

        // Update the last modified time of the file.
        long currentTimeMillis = System.currentTimeMillis();
        FileTime fileTime = FileTime.fromMillis(currentTimeMillis);
        Files.setLastModifiedTime(file, fileTime);

        attr = Files.readAttributes(file, BasicFileAttributes.class);
        System.out.println("lastModifiedTime() = " + attr.lastModifiedTime());
    }
}

The output of the code snippet:

lastModifiedTime() = 2017-11-28T00:08:55.291206Z
lastModifiedTime() = 2017-12-01T14:56:21.26Z

How do I read file using FileInputStream?

The following example use the java.io.FileInputStream class to read contents of a text file. We’ll read a file located in the temporary directory defined by operating system. This temporary directory can be accessed using the java.io.tmpdir system property.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;

public class FileInputStreamDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Get the temporary directory. We'll read the data.txt file
        // from this directory.
        String tempDir = System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir");
        File file = new File(tempDir + "/data.txt");

        StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
        FileInputStream fis = null;
        try {
            // Create a FileInputStream to read the file.
            fis = new FileInputStream(file);

            int data;
            // Read the entire file data. When -1 is returned it
            // means no more content to read.
            while ((data = fis.read()) != -1) {
                builder.append((char) data);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (fis != null) {
                try {
                    fis.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }

        // Print the content of the file
        System.out.println("File Contents = " + builder.toString());
    }
}

The content read from the input stream will be appended into a StringBuilder object. At the end of the snippet the content of the will be converted into string using the toString() method.

Here are the content of our data.txt file.

File Contents = Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry.
Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the
1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to
make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but
also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged.
It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets
containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing
software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

How do I read all lines from a file?

The java.nio.file.Files.readAllLines() method read all lines from a file. This method ensures that the file is closed when all bytes have been read or an I/O error, or other runtime exception, is thrown. Bytes from the file are decoded into characters using the specified charset.

Note that this method is intended for simple cases where it is convenient to read all lines in a single operation. It is not intended for reading in large files. This method is available in Java 7.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.net.URI;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.util.List;

public class ReadFileAsListDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ReadFileAsListDemo demo = new ReadFileAsListDemo();
        demo.readFileAsList();
    }

    private void readFileAsList() {
        String fileName = "/data.txt";

        try {
            URI uri = this.getClass().getResource(fileName).toURI();
            List<String> lines = Files.readAllLines(Paths.get(uri),
                Charset.defaultCharset());

            for (String line : lines) {
                System.out.println(line);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}