How do I generate random string?

package org.kodejava.example.security;

import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.util.Random;

public class RandomString {
    public static final String SOURCES =
            "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz1234567890";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        RandomString rs = new RandomString();
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new Random(), SOURCES, 10));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new Random(), SOURCES, 10));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new SecureRandom(), SOURCES, 15));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new SecureRandom(), SOURCES, 15));
    }

    /**
     * Generate a random string.
     *
     * @param random the random number generator.
     * @param characters the characters for generating string.
     * @param length the length of the generated string.
     * @return
     */
    public String generateString(Random random, String characters, int length) {
        char[] text = new char[length];
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            text[i] = characters.charAt(random.nextInt(characters.length()));
        }
        return new String(text);
    }
}

Example string produced by the code snippets are:

uxEUFqTqS0
vr89vdF4gh
ysYF9XEHhO5FtDf
aBANhrLObZ1XLJi

How do I convert InputStream to String?

This example will show you how to convert an InputStream into String. In the code snippet below we read a data.txt file, could be from common folder or from inside a jar file.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.io.*;

public class StreamToString {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        StreamToString sts = new StreamToString();

        // Get input stream of our data file. This file can be in
        // the root of you application folder or inside a jar file
        // if the program is packed as a jar.
        InputStream is = sts.getClass().getResourceAsStream("/data.txt");

        // Call the method to convert the stream to string
        System.out.println(sts.convertStreamToString(is));
    }

    public String convertStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
        // To convert the InputStream to String we use the
        // Reader.read(char[] buffer) method. We iterate until the
        // Reader return -1 which means there's no more data to
        // read. We use the StringWriter class to produce the string.
        if (is != null) {
            Writer writer = new StringWriter();

            char[] buffer = new char[1024];
            try {
                Reader reader = new BufferedReader(
                        new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"));
                int n;
                while ((n = reader.read(buffer)) != -1) {
                    writer.write(buffer, 0, n);
                }
            } finally {
                is.close();
            }
            return writer.toString();
        }
        return "";
    }
}

How do I remove substring from StringBuilder?

This example demonstrate you how to use the StringBuilder delete(int start, int end) and deleteCharAt(int index) to remove a substring or a single character from a StringBuilder.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class StringBuilderDelete {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        StringBuilder lipsum = new StringBuilder("Lorem ipsum dolor sit " +
                "amet, consectetur adipisicing elit.");
        System.out.println("lipsum = " + lipsum.toString());

        // We'll remove a substring from this StringBuilder starting from
        // the first character to the 28th character.
        lipsum.delete(0, 28);
        System.out.println("lipsum = " + lipsum.toString());

        // Removes a char from the StringBuilder. In the example below we
        // remove the last character.
        lipsum.deleteCharAt(lipsum.length() - 1);
        System.out.println("lipsum = " + lipsum.toString());
    }
}

How do I add leading zeros to a number?

This example shows you how to use the String.format() method to add zero padding to a number. If you just want to print out the result you can use System.out.format(). This method is available since Java 1.5, so If you use a previous version you can use the NumberFormat class, see: How do I format a number with leading zeros?.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class LeadingZerosExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int number = 1500;

        //
        // String format below will add leading zeros (the %0 syntax) 
        // to the number above. The length of the formatted string will 
        // be 7 characters.
        //
        String formatted = String.format("%07d", number);

        System.out.println("Number with leading zeros: " + formatted);
    }
}

Here is the result of the code snippet above:

Number with leading zeros: 0001500

For more information about the format syntax you can find it here.

How do I iterate each characters of a string?

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.CharacterIterator;
import java.text.StringCharacterIterator;

public class StringCharacterIteratorExample {
    private static final String text =
        "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        CharacterIterator it = new StringCharacterIterator(text);

        int vowels = 0;
        int consonants = 0;

        // Iterates charater sets from the beginning to the last character
        for (char ch = it.first(); ch != CharacterIterator.DONE; ch = it.next()) {
            if (ch == 'a' || ch == 'e' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'o' || ch == 'u') {
                vowels = vowels + 1;
            } else if (ch != ' ') {
                consonants = consonants + 1;
            }
        }

        System.out.println("Number of vowels: " + vowels);
        System.out.println("Number of consonants: " + consonants);
    }
}

How do I convert string to an integer or number?

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class StringToInteger {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Some random selected number, could representing a decimal,
        // hexadecimal or octal number.
        String myLuckyNumber = "13";

        // We convert a string to an integer by invoking parseInt() method
        // of the Integer class.
        Integer number = Integer.parseInt(myLuckyNumber);
        System.out.println("My lucky number is: " + number);

        // We can also converting a string representation of a number other
        // then the decimal base, for instance an hexadecimal by providing
        // the radix to the method.
        number = Integer.parseInt(myLuckyNumber, 16);
        System.out.println("My lucky number is: " + number);

        number = Integer.parseInt(myLuckyNumber, 8);
        System.out.println("My lucky number is: " + number);
    }
}

Our code results are:

My lucky number is: 13
My lucky number is: 19
My lucky number is: 11

How do I reverse a string?

Below is an example code that reverse a string. In this example we use StringBuffer.reverse() method to reverse a string. In Java 1.5, a new class called StringBuilder also has a reverse() method that do just the same, one of the difference is StringBuffer class is synchronized while StringBuilder class is not.

And here is the string reverse in the StringBuffer way.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class StringReverseExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // The normal sentence that is going to be reversed.
        String words =
                "Morning of The World - The Last Paradise on Earth";

        // To reverse the string we can use the reverse() method in
        // the StringBuffer class. The reverse() method returns a
        // StringBuffer so we need to call the toString() method to
        // get a string object.
        String reverse = new StringBuffer(words).reverse().toString();

        // Print the normal string
        System.out.println("Normal : " + words);
        // Print the string in reversed order
        System.out.println("Reverse: " + reverse);
    }
}

Beside using this simple method you can try to reverse a string by converting it to character array and then reverse the array order.

And below is the result of the code snippet above.

Normal : Morning of The World - The Last Paradise on Earth
Reverse: htraE no esidaraP tsaL ehT - dlroW ehT fo gninroM

How do I convert string to char array?

Here we have a small class that convert a string literal into array, a character array.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class StringToArrayExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // We have a string literal that contains the motto of this website.
        String literal = "Kode Java - Learn Java Programming by Examples";

        // Now we want to convert or divided it into a small array of char.
        // To do this we can simply used String.toCharArray() method. This
        // method splits the string into an array of characters.
        char[] temp = literal.toCharArray();

        // Here we just iterate the char array and print it to our console.
        for (int i = 0; i < temp.length; i++) {
            System.out.print(temp[i]);
        }
    }
}

How do I convert string of time to time object?

You want to convert a string representing a time into a time object in Java. As we know that Java represents a time information in a class java.util.Date, this class keep information for date and time.

Now if you have a string of time like 15:30:18, you can use a SimpleDateFormat object to parse the string time and return a java.util.Date object. The pattern of the string should be passed to the SimpleDateFormat constructor. In the example below the string is formatted as hh:mm:ss (hour:minute:second).

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.text.DateFormat;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;

public class StringToTimeExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {        
        // A string of time information
        String time = "15:30:18";

        // Create an instance of SimpleDateFormat with the specified
        // format.
        DateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("hh:mm:ss");
        try {
            // To get the date object from the string just called the 
            // parse method and pass the time string to it. This method 
            // throws ParseException if the time string is invalid. 
            // But remember as we don't pass the date information this 
            // date object will represent the 1st of january 1970.
            Date date = sdf.parse(time);            
            System.out.println("Date and Time: " + date);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

How do I get a part or a substring of a string?

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class SubstringExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // This program demonstrate how we can take some part of a string 
        // or the what we called as substring. Java String class provides 
        // substring method with some overloaded parameter.

        String sentence = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet...";

        // The first substring method with single parameter beginIndex 
        // will take some part of the string from the beginning index 
        // until the last character in the string.
        String part = sentence.substring(6);
        System.out.println("Part of sentence: " + part);

        // The second substring method take two parameters, beginIndex 
        // and endIndex. This method returns the substring start from 
        // beginIndex to the endIndex.
        part = sentence.substring(12, 21);
        System.out.println("Part of sentence: " + part);
    }
}