How do I define a servlet with @WebServlet annotation?

Annotations is one new feature introduces in the Servlet 3.0 Specification. Previously to declare servlets, listeners or filters we must do it in the web.xml file. Now, with the new annotations feature we can just annotate servlet classes using the @WebServlet annotation.

package org.kodejava.example.servlet;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebInitParam;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;

@WebServlet(
        name = "HelloAnnotationServlet",
        urlPatterns = {"/hello", "/helloanno"},
        asyncSupported = false,
        initParams = {
                @WebInitParam(name = "name", value = "admin"),
                @WebInitParam(name = "param1", value = "value1"),
                @WebInitParam(name = "param2", value = "value2")
        }
)
public class HelloAnnotationServlet extends HttpServlet {
    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws ServletException, IOException {
        response.setContentType("text/html");

        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        out.write("<html><head><title>WebServlet Annotation</title></head>");
        out.write("<body>");
        out.write("<h1>Servlet Hello Annotation</h1>");
        out.write("<hr/>");
        out.write("Welcome " + getServletConfig().getInitParameter("name"));
        out.write("</body></html>");
        out.close();
    }
}

After you’ve deploy the servlet you’ll be able to access it either using the /hello or /helloanno url.

The table below give a brief information about the attributes accepted by the @WebServlet annotation and their purposes.

ATTRIBUTE DESCRIPTION
name The servlet name, this attribute is optional.
description The servlet description and it is an optional attribute.
displayName The servlet display name, this attribute is optional.
urlPatterns An array of url patterns use for accessing the servlet, this attribute is required and should at least register one url pattern.
asyncSupported Specifies whether the servlet supports asynchronous processing or not, the value can be true or false.
initParams An array of @WebInitParam, that can be used to pass servlet configuration parameters. This attribute is optional.
loadOnStartup An integer value that indicates servlet initialization order, this attribute is optional.
smallIcon A small icon image for the servlet, this attribute is optional.
largeIcon A large icon image for the servlet, this attribute is optional.

How do I get servlet request URL information?

In the example below we extract information about the request object path information. We extract the protocol user, server and and its assigned port number. We extract our application context path, servlet path, path info and the query string information. If we combaine all the information below we’ll get someting equals to the request.getRequestURL().

package org.kodejava.example.servlet;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;

public class ServletUrlInformation extends HttpServlet {
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws ServletException, IOException {
        doPost(request, response);
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request,
                          HttpServletResponse response)
            throws ServletException, IOException {
        // Getting servlet request URL
        String url = request.getRequestURL().toString();

        // Getting servlet request query string.
        String queryString = request.getQueryString();

        // Getting request information without the hostname.
        String uri = request.getRequestURI();

        // Below we extract information about the request object path
        // information.
        String scheme = request.getScheme();
        String serverName = request.getServerName();
        int portNumber = request.getServerPort();
        String contextPath = request.getContextPath();
        String servletPath = request.getServletPath();
        String pathInfo = request.getPathInfo();
        String query = request.getQueryString();

        response.setContentType("text/html");
        PrintWriter pw = response.getWriter();
        pw.print("Url: " + url + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Uri: " + uri + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Scheme: " + scheme + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Server Name: " + serverName + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Port: " + portNumber + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Context Path: " + contextPath + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Servlet Path: " + servletPath + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Path Info: " + pathInfo + "<br/>");
        pw.print("Query: " + query);
    }
}

Register the servlet in the web.xml file and define the url-pattern to urlinfo in the servlet-mapping. When you access this servlet using the following url http://localhost:8080/urlinfo?x=1&y=1, you’ll get the following output on your browser:

Url: http://localhost:8080/urlinfo
Uri: /urlinfo
Scheme: http
Server Name: localhost
Port: 8080
Context Path: 
Servlet Path: /urlinfo
Path Info: null
Query: x=1&y=1

How do I read servlet context initilization parameters?

package org.kodejava.example.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.util.Enumeration;

import javax.servlet.Servlet;
import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

public class ContextInitParameter extends HttpServlet implements Servlet {

    public ContextInitParameter() {
    }

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
    doPost(request, response);
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        response.setContentType("text/html");
        PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();

        // Get an instance of ServletContext
        ServletContext context = getServletContext();

        // To read context initialization parameter we can call context.getInitParameter() 
        // and pass the name of initialization parameter to be read. If the named
        // parameter does not exists the returned value will be null. 
        //
        // In this example we read an initialization parameter called LOG.PATH
        String logPath = context.getInitParameter("LOG.PATH");
        writer.println("Log Path: " + logPath + "<br/>");

        // Reads all the name of servlet's initialization parameters. If the
        // servlet doesn't have any an empty enumeration will be returned.
        Enumeration enumeration = context.getInitParameterNames();
        while (enumeration.hasMoreElements()) {
            String paramName = (String) enumeration.nextElement();
            String paramValue = context.getInitParameter(paramName);               

            writer.println("Context Init Param: [" + paramName + " = " + paramValue + "]<br/>");
        }
    }
}