What are the system properties used for sending email?

Here are a list of system properties that can be use to send an e-mail using the JavaMail API.

Property Default Value Description
mail.host Define the host name of the mail server.
mail.smtp.host Define the host name of the SMTP server; this will overrides the mail.host for SMTP connections only.
mail._protocol_.host Define the host name of the specified protocol (POP, IMAP); this will overrides the mail.host.
mail.user Define the default username sent to all mail servers.
mail._protocol_.user Define the default username for the specified protocol; this will overrides the mail.user for the specified protocol.
mail.smtp.port 25 Define the SMTP port on which the SMTP server is listening.
mail._protocol_.port Default port for the corresponding protocol Define the port on which the servers for the specified protocol is listening.
mail.smtp.starttls.enable Upgrade the regular SMTP connection on the usual port to an encrypted (TLS or SSL) connection.
mail.smtp.connectiontimeout Infinite Define the number of milliseconds to wait for a connection timeout.
mail.debug false Define parameter for disabling or enabling information debugging.
mail.from Define the e-mail address to use in the From header.
mail.mime.charset file.encoding Define the default character set used to send messages.
mail.alternates Define other email address for the current that will not to be included when replying to a message.
mail._protocol_.class Define the fully package qualified class name of the provider for the specified protocol.
mail.transport.protocol First transport provider in the configuration file Define default protocol with which to send messages.
mail.transport.protocol.address-type Define the message transport protocol such as SMTP for the specified address type, for example mail.transport.protocol.rfc822.
mail.replayallcc false Put all recipients in the CC list of the reply message instead of the TO field when replying to all.

How to establish connection to database with Properties?

In the following code snippet you’ll see how to pass some connection arguments when connecting to a database. To do this we can use the java.util.Properties class. We can put some key value pairs as a connection arguments to the Properties object before we pass this information into the DriverManager class.

Let’s see the example below:

package org.kodejava.example.jdbc;

import java.sql.*;
import java.util.Properties;

public class GetConnectionWithProperties {
    private static final String URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava";
    private static final String USERNAME = "root";
    private static final String PASSWORD = "";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        GetConnectionWithProperties demo = new GetConnectionWithProperties();
        try (Connection connection = demo.getConnection()) {
            // do something with the connection.
            Statement stmt = connection.createStatement();
            ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM products");
            while (rs.next()) {
                System.out.println("Code = " + rs.getString("code"));
                System.out.println("Name = " + rs.getString("name"));
        } catch (SQLException e) {

    private Connection getConnection() throws SQLException {
        Properties connectionProps = new Properties();
        connectionProps.put("user", USERNAME);
        connectionProps.put("password", PASSWORD);

        Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(URL, connectionProps);
        System.out.println("Connected to database.");
        return connection;

Maven dependencies

<!-- https://search.maven.org/remotecontent?filepath=mysql/mysql-connector-java/5.1.47/mysql-connector-java-5.1.47.jar -->

Maven Central

How do I convert Properties into Map?

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.util.Properties;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Set;

public class PropertiesToMap {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a new instance of Properties.
        Properties properties = new Properties();

        // Populate properties with a dummy application information
        properties.setProperty("app.name", "HTML Designer");
        properties.setProperty("app.version", "1.0");
        properties.setProperty("app.vendor", "HTML Designer Inc");

        // Create a new HashMap and pass an instance of Properties. Properties
        // is an implementation of a Map which keys and values stored as in a
        // String.
        Map<Object, Object> map = new HashMap<>(properties);

        // Get the entry set of the Map and print it out.
        Set propertySet = map.entrySet();
        for (Object o : propertySet) {
            Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry) o;
            System.out.printf("%s = %s%n", entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());

How do I convert ResourceBundle to Properties?

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.util.*;

public class ResourceBundleToProperties {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Load resource bundle Messages_en_GB.properties from the classpath.
        ResourceBundle resource = ResourceBundle.getBundle("Messages", Locale.UK);

        // Call the convertResourceBundleToProperties method to convert the resource
        // bundle into a Properties object.
        Properties properties = convertResourceBundleToProperties(resource);

        // Print the entire contents of the Properties.
        Enumeration keys = properties.keys();
        while (keys.hasMoreElements()) {
            String key = (String) keys.nextElement();
            String value = (String) properties.get(key);
            System.out.println(key + " = " + value);

     * Convert ResourceBundle into a Properties object.
     * @param resource a resource bundle to convert.
     * @return Properties a properties version of the resource bundle.
    private static Properties convertResourceBundleToProperties(ResourceBundle resource) {
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        Enumeration<String> keys = resource.getKeys();
        while (keys.hasMoreElements()) {
            String key = keys.nextElement();
            properties.put(key, resource.getString(key));
        return properties;

How do I store properties as XML file?

In the previous example, How do I load properties from XML file? we read properties from XML file. Now it’s the turn on how to store the properties as XML file.

package org.kodejava.example.io;

import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.util.Properties;

public class PropertiesToXml {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        properties.setProperty("database.type", "mysql");
        properties.setProperty("database.url", "jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb");
        properties.setProperty("database.username", "root");
        properties.setProperty("database.password", "root");

        FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream("database-configuration.xml");
        properties.storeToXML(fos, "Database Configuration", "UTF-8");

The saved XML file will look like the properties file below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE properties SYSTEM "http://java.sun.com/dtd/properties.dtd">
    <comment>Database Configuration</comment>
    <entry key="database.password">root</entry>
    <entry key="database.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb</entry>
    <entry key="database.type">mysql</entry>
    <entry key="database.username">root</entry>

How do I load properties from XML file?

Reading XML properties can be easily done using the java.util.Properties.loadFromXML() method. Just like reading the properties from a file that contains a key=value pairs, the XML file will also contains a key and value wrapped in the following XML format.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE properties SYSTEM "http://java.sun.com/dtd/properties.dtd">
    <comment>Application Configuration</comment>
    <entry key="data.folder">D:\AppData</entry>
    <entry key="jdbc.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb</entry>
package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.util.Properties;

public class LoadXmlProperties {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LoadXmlProperties lxp = new LoadXmlProperties();
        try {
            Properties properties = lxp.readProperties();

            //Display all properties information

            // Read the value of data.folder and jdbc.url configuration
            String dataFolder = properties.getProperty("data.folder");
            System.out.println("data.folder = " + dataFolder);
            String jdbcUrl = properties.getProperty("jdbc.url");
            System.out.println("jdbc.url    = " + jdbcUrl);
        } catch (Exception e) {

    private Properties readProperties() throws Exception {
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream("configuration.xml");

        return properties;

The result of the code snippet above:

-- listing properties --
data.folder = D:\AppData
jdbc.url    = jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb

How do I get path / classpath separator?

OS platform has different symbol used for path separator. Path separator is a symbol that separate one path element from the other. In Windows the path separator is a semicolon symbol (;), you have something like:


While in Linux based operating systems the path separator is a colon symbol (:), it looks like:


To obtain the path separator you can use the following code.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

import java.util.Properties;

public class PathSeparator {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Get System properties
        Properties properties = System.getProperties();

        // Get the path separator which is unfortunately
        // using a different symbol in different OS platform.
        String pathSeparator = properties.getProperty("path.separator");
        System.out.println("pathSeparator = " + pathSeparator);

How do I read a configuration file using java.util.Properties?

When we have an application that used a text file to store a configuration and the configuration is typically in a key=value format then we can use java.util.Properties to read that configuration file.

Here is an example of a configuration file called app.config:

app.name=Properties Sample Code

The code below show you how to read the configuration.

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.io.*;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.Objects;
import java.util.Properties;

public class PropertiesExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Properties prop = new Properties();
        try {
            // the configuration file name
            String fileName = "app.config";
            ClassLoader classLoader = PropertiesExample.class.getClassLoader();

            // Make sure that the configuration file exists
            URL res = Objects.requireNonNull(classLoader.getResource(fileName),
                "Can't find configuration file app.config");

            InputStream is = new FileInputStream(res.getFile());

            // load the properties file

            // get the value for app.name key
            // get the value for app.version key

            // get the value for app.vendor key and if the
            // key is not available return Kode Java as
            // the default value
            System.out.println(prop.getProperty("app.vendor","Kode Java"));
        } catch (IOException e) {

The code snippet will print these results:

Properties Sample Code
Kode Java