How do I display negative number in parentheses?

The code snippet below show us how to display or format negative number in parentheses. We start by defining the number format, the pattern has two parts separated by a semicolon. In the snippet we use the #,##0.00;(#,##0.00) pattern. The pattern after the semicolon will be use to format negative number.

Next we create an instance of DecimalFormat by calling getInstance() method. We apply the the format pattern for the formatter object by calling the applyPattern() method of the DecimalFormat instance. To format the number we simply call the format() method and pass the number we are going to format for display or print out.

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberFormat {
    // Pattern for formatting negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DecimalFormat df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN1);

        // Format using parentheses
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(125));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-125));

        // Format using currency symbol and minus sign
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN2);
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(1000));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-1000));
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above is:

Positive: 125.00
Negative: (125.00)
Positive: $1,000.00
Negative: -$1,000.00

If you need to parse negative numbers in parentheses to produce the represented number you can see the following example How do I parse negative number in parentheses?.

How do I format a number as currency string?

Creating a financial application requires you to format number as a currency. It should includes the correct thousands separator, decimal separator and the currency symbol. For this purpose you can use the NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance() method and pass the correct Locale to get the currency format that you want.

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.NumberFormat;
import java.util.Locale;

public class LocaleCurrencyFormat {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Double number = 1500D;

        // Format currency for Canada locale in Canada locale, 
        // the decimal point symbol is a comma and currency
        // symbol is $.
        NumberFormat format = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(Locale.CANADA);
        String currency = format.format(number);
        System.out.println("Currency in Canada : " + currency);

        // Format currency for Germany locale in German locale,
        // the decimal point symbol is a dot and currency symbol
        // is €.
        format = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(Locale.GERMANY);
        currency = format.format(number);
        System.out.println("Currency in Germany: " + currency);
    }
}

Here is an output for the currency format using the Locale.CANADA and Locale.GERMANY.

Currency in Canada : $1,500.00
Currency in Germany: 1.500,00 €

How do I set default Locale?

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;
import java.text.NumberFormat;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Random;

public class DefaultLocaleExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Use Random class to generate some random number
        Random random = new Random();

        // We use the system default locale to format a number and a date.
        NumberFormat formatter = new DecimalFormat();
        Locale locale = Locale.getDefault();
        System.out.println("Default Locale = " + locale);
        System.out.println("Number         = " + formatter.format(random.nextDouble()));
        System.out.println("Date           = " + new SimpleDateFormat().format(new Date()));

        // We change the default locale to Locale.ITALY by setting it through 
        // the Locale.setDefault() method and then we format another number 
        // and date using a new locale. This change will affect all the class 
        // that aware to the Locale, such as the NumberFormat class.
        Locale.setDefault(Locale.ITALY);
        NumberFormat newFormatter = new DecimalFormat();
        System.out.println("New Locale     = " + Locale.getDefault());
        System.out.println("Number         = " + newFormatter.format(random.nextDouble()));
        System.out.println("Date           = " + new SimpleDateFormat().format(new Date()));
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above are:

Default Locale = en_US
Number         = 0.78
Date           = 10/20/17 1:58 PM
New Locale     = it_IT
Number         = 0,068
Date           = 20/10/17 13.58