Using format flags to format negative number in parentheses

In this example we are going to learn to use a java.util.Formatter to format negative number in parentheses. The Formatter can use a format flags to format a value. To display a negative number in parentheses we can use the ( flag. This flag display negative number inside parentheses instead of using the - symbol.

The following code snippet below will show you how to do it. We start the example by using the Formatter object and simplified using the format() method of the String class.

package org.kodejava.util;

import java.util.Formatter;
import java.util.Locale;

public class FormatNegativeNumber {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Creates an instance of Formatter, format the number using the
        // format and print out the result.
        Formatter formatter = new Formatter();
        formatter.format("%(,.2f", -199.99f);
        System.out.println("number1 = " + formatter);

        // Use String.format() method instead of creating an instance of
        // Formatter. Format a negative number using Germany locale.
        String number2 = String.format(Locale.GERMANY, "%(,8.2f", -49.99);
        System.out.println("number2 = " + number2);

        // Format number using Indonesian locale. The thousand separator is "."
        // in Indonesian number.
        String number3 = String.format(new Locale("id", "ID"), "%(,d", -10000);
        System.out.println("number3 = " + number3);

The result of this code snippet:

number1 = (199.99)
number2 =  (49,99)
number3 = (10.000)

How do I parse negative number in parentheses?

In financial application negative numbers are often represented in parentheses. In this post we will learn how we can parse or convert the negative number in parentheses to produce the represented number value. To parse text / string to a number we can use the java.text.DecimalFormat class.

Beside number in parentheses, in this example we also parse negative number that use the minus sign with the currency symbol like $. Let’s jump to the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberParse {
    // Pattern for parsing negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        DecimalFormat df = new DecimalFormat(PATTERN1);

        String number1 = "(1000)";
        String number2 = "(1,500.99)";

        System.out.println("number1 = " + df.parse(number1));
        System.out.println("number2 = " + df.parse(number2));

        df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();

        String number3 = "-$1000";
        String number4 = "-$1,500.99";

        System.out.println("number3 = " + df.parse(number3));
        System.out.println("number4 = " + df.parse(number4));

And here are the results of our code snippet above:

number1 = -1000
number2 = -1500.99
number3 = -1000
number4 = -1500.99

If you need to display or format negative numbers in parentheses you can take a look at the following example How do I display negative number in parentheses?.

How to use underscore in numeric literals?

Writing a long sequence of numbers in a code is a hard stuff to read. In the new feature introduced by JDK 7 we are now allowed to write numeric literals using the underscore character to break the numbers to make it easier to read.

You can see how to use underscore in numeric literals in the following examples. And you’ll see it for yourself that it really makes numbers easier to read.

package org.kodejava.basic;

public class UnderscoreNumericExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Write numeric literals using underscore as an easier way
        // to read long numbers.
        int maxInt = 2_147_483_647;
        int minInt = -2_147_483_648;

        if (maxInt == Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
            System.out.println("maxInt = " + maxInt);

        if (minInt == Integer.MIN_VALUE) {
            System.out.println("minInt = " + minInt);

        // Write numbers in binary or hex literals using the
        // underscores.
        int maxIntBinary = 0B111_1111_1111_1111_1111_1111_1111_1111;
        int maxIntHex = 0X7____F____F____F____F____F____F____F;

        System.out.println("maxIntBinary = " + maxIntBinary);
        System.out.println("maxIntHex    = " + maxIntHex);

The results of the code snippet:

maxInt = 2147483647
minInt = -2147483648
maxIntBinary = 2147483647
maxIntHex    = 2147483647

How do I raised a number to the power of n?

The static method Math.pow(double a, double b) can be used to raise the value specified in the a, the first argument, (the base), to the power of the value specified in b, the second argument, (the exponent). The exponent tells us how many times the base should be multiplied by itself. So, if I have the number of 5, and I want to raise it to the 3rd power, it means that I have to multiply 5 by itself for 3 times.

There are some special cases for the Math.pow() method, as you can read in the Javadocs, here four of them taken from the Javadocs:

  • If the second argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is 1.0.
  • If the second argument is 1.0, then the result is the same as the first argument.
  • If the second argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
  • If the first argument is NaN and the second argument is nonzero, then the result is NaN.

You can read more detail about the Math.pow() method on the following Javadocs, Math.pow().

Let’s see a code snippet as an example:

package org.kodejava.math;

public class PowerExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        double cubeRoot = 5d;

        // Get the cubed number of cube root
        // x cubed = x^3 (multiplication three times)
        double cubed = Math.pow(cubeRoot, 3);
        System.out.println(cubeRoot + " cubed is " + cubed);

        // Raised to zero
        System.out.println("Math.pow(2, 0): " + Math.pow(2, 0));

        // Raised to one
        System.out.println("Math.pow(2, 1): " + Math.pow(2, 1));

        // Raised to NaN
        System.out.println("Math.pow(2, Double.NaN): " + Math.pow(2, Double.NaN));

        // NaN raised to the nonzero exponent
        System.out.println("Math.pow(Double.NaN, 2): " + Math.pow(Double.NaN, 2));

Our program print the following output:

5.0 cubed is 125.0
Math.pow(2, 0): 1.0
Math.pow(2, 1): 2.0
Math.pow(2, Double.NaN): NaN
Math.pow(Double.NaN, 2): NaN

How do I round a number?

The example below show you some methods of the Math class that can be used to round the value of a number. These methods are Math.ceil(), Math.floor() and Math.round().

package org.kodejava.math;

public class GetRoundedValueExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Double number = 1.5D;

        // Get the smallest value that is greater than or equal to the
        // argument and is equal to a mathematical integer
        double roundUp = Math.ceil(number);
        System.out.println("Result of rounding up of " + number + " = " + roundUp);

        // Get the largest value that is less than or equal to the
        // argument and is equal to a mathematical integer
        double roundDown = Math.floor(number);
        System.out.println("Result of rounding down of " + number + " = " + roundDown);

        // Get the closest long value to the argument
        long round1 = Math.round(number);
        System.out.println("Rounding result of " + number + " (in long) = " + round1);

        // Get the closest int value to the argument
        int round2 = Math.round(number.floatValue());
        System.out.println("Rounding result of " + number + " (in int) = " + round2);

Here are the result of the program:

Result of rounding up of 1.5 = 2.0
Result of rounding down of 1.5 = 1.0
Rounding result of 1.5 (in long) = 2
Rounding result of 1.5 (in int) = 2