What is the purpose of String.strip() method of Java 11?

The purpose of the String.strip() method in Java 11 is to remove whitespaces from both the beginning and end of a string. This is very similar to the String.trim() method available in earlier versions of Java, but there is a key difference between them.

Here’s the difference:

  • String.strip(): Introduced in Java 11, strip() uses the unicode definition of whitespace. It removes not only space characters but also all other types of unicode-defined spaces, such as the thin space \u2009, etc.
  • String.trim(): Available from Java 1.0, trim() is more limited. It considers a whitespace to be any character whose ASCII value is less than or equal to 32 (a space, tab, newline, and a few other control characters).

Here are examples of how they work:

package org.kodejava.lang;

public class StringStripExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // String.strip()
        String first = " \u2009Hello  ";
        System.out.println(first.strip()); // Outputs "Hello"

        // String.trim()
        String second = " \u2009Hello  ";
        System.out.println(second.trim()); // Outputs "\u2009Hello"



Thus, strip() method is more comprehensive in removing different types of whitespace defined in Unicode, while trim() only removes ASCII control characters and spaces.

There are also String.stripLeading() and String.stripTrailing() methods that were introduced in Java 11, and they are similar to the strip() method, but they only remove the whitespace characters from either the beginning or the end of the string, respectively.

Here is what they do:

  • String.stripLeading(): This method removes any leading whitespace from the string. “Leading” in this context means any whitespace characters at the beginning of the string.
  • String.stripTrailing(): This method removes any trailing whitespace from the string. “Trailing” in this context means any whitespace characters at the end of the string.

Both stripLeading() and stripTrailing() use the Unicode definition of whitespace, the same as strip() method.

Here are examples of how they work:

package org.kodejava.lang;

public class StringStripLeadingTrailingExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Strip leading whitespace
        String first = " \u2009Hello World  ";
        System.out.println(first.stripLeading());  // Outputs "Hello World  "

        // Strip trailing whitespace
        String second = " \u2009Hello World  ";
        System.out.println(second.stripTrailing()); // Outputs " \u2009Hello World"


Hello World  
  Hello World

As demonstrated, stripLeading() removed the whitespace characters from the front of the string, and stripTrailing() removed the whitespace characters from the end of the string.

While \u00A0 is technically a type of whitespace (specifically, a non-breaking space or NBSP), it isn’t considered as such by the strip(), stripLeading(), and stripTrailing() methods, which follow the Character.isWhitespace(char) method’s definition of what constitutes a whitespace character.

According to the Java documentation, the Character.isWhitespace(char) method, which the strip() methods use, considers the following characters as whitespace:

  • ‘\n’ U+000A LINE FEED
  • ‘\f’ U+000C FORM FEED
  • ‘\u001C’ U+001C FILE SEPARATOR
  • ‘\u001D’ U+001D GROUP SEPARATOR
  • ‘\u001E’ U+001E RECORD SEPARATOR
  • ‘\u001F’ U+001F UNIT SEPARATOR
  • SPACE_SEPARATOR category types

The \u2009 (thin space) and \u0020 (space) are part of SPACE_SEPARATOR category according to Unicode standard and will be correctly stripped.

The \u00A0 (non-breaking space) is actually part of a different category called the NO-BREAK_SPACE and is not considered whitespace by Character.isWhitespace(char), so it won’t be stripped.

How do I create a string of repeated characters?

The following code demonstrates how to create a string of repeated characters. We use the String.repeat(int count) method introduced in Java 11. This method takes one parameter of type int which is the number of times to repeat the string. The count must be a positive number, a negative number will cause this method to throw java.lang.IllegalArgumentException.

In the snippet below, we use the method to repeat characters and draw some triangles. We combine the repeat() method with a for loop to draw the triangles.

package org.kodejava.basic;

public class StringRepeatDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String star = "*";
        String fiveStars = star.repeat(5);
        System.out.println("fiveStars = " + fiveStars);

        String arrow = "-->";
        String arrows = arrow.repeat(10);
        System.out.println("arrows    = " + arrows);

The outputs of the code snippet above are:

fiveStars = *****
arrows    = -->-->-->-->-->-->-->-->-->-->
package org.kodejava.basic;

public class StringRepeatDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String asterisk = "#";
        for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {

The outputs of the code snippet above are:

package org.kodejava.basic;

public class StringRepeatDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int height = 10;
        for (int i = 1, j = 1; i <= height; i++, j += 2) {
            System.out.println(" ".repeat(height - i) + "*".repeat(j));

The outputs of the code snippet above are:


How do I get HTTP headers using HttpClient HEAD request?

The HTTP HEAD method is used for reading the headers information of a resource returned when accessing it using the HTTP GET method. Such request can be done before deciding to download a large resource to save bandwidth. The response to a HEAD method should not have a body, in the code below we use the HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.discarding(), which is a response body handler that discards the response body.

In the code snippet below we start by creating an instance of HttpClient, in this example we use the HttpClient.newBuilder().build() method. After creating the HttpClient we create the HttpRequest object. We set the HTTP method to HEAD by calling the method method() and pass a string “HEAD” as the method name and HttpRequest.BodyPublishers.noBody() a request body publisher which sends no request body.

The next step in the code below is to send the request and get the response headers from the HttpResponse object using the headers() method. The map() method of the HttpHeaders object give us a key-values of the headers returned by the server.

package org.kodejava.httpclient;

import java.net.URI;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.net.http.HttpHeaders;
import java.net.http.HttpRequest;
import java.net.http.HttpResponse;

public class HeadRequestExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        HttpClient client = HttpClient.newBuilder().build();

        HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
                .method("HEAD", HttpRequest.BodyPublishers.noBody())

        HttpResponse<Void> response = client.send(request,

        // Returns an unmodifiable multi-map view of this HttpHeaders.
        // The map contains key of string, with list of strings as
        // its value.
        HttpHeaders headers = response.headers();
        headers.map().forEach((key, values) ->
                System.out.printf("%s = %s%n", key, values));

Here are the HTTP headers we got and printed out to the console screen:

:status = [301]
alt-svc = [quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="46,43",h3-Q050=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q049=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q048=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q046=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q043=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-T050=":443"; ma=2592000]
cache-control = [public, max-age=2592000]
content-length = [220]
content-type = [text/html; charset=UTF-8]
date = [Wed, 22 Apr 2020 14:41:49 GMT]
expires = [Fri, 22 May 2020 14:41:49 GMT]
location = [https://www.google.com/]
server = [gws]
x-frame-options = [SAMEORIGIN]
x-xss-protection = [0]

How do I read website content using HttpClient?

The HTTP Client API can be used to request HTTP resources over the network. This new API was introduced as a new API in Java 11. It supports HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2 and also support both synchronous and asynchronous programming models. The code snippet below show you how to use the new API to read the content of a website page.

In the code below we start by creating a new instance of HttpClient using the newHttpClient() static method. This is equivalent to calling newBuilder().build(). This give us an instance of HttpClient with default settings like using the “GET” request method the as the default. Then we create an HttpRequest object using the newBuilder() method, set the request URI and call the build() method to build the HttpRequest object.

Next we send the request by calling the send() method of the HttpClient object. This will sends the given request, blocking if necessary to get the response. The returned HttpResponse object contains the response status, headers, and body as handled by given response body handler.

package org.kodejava.httpclient;

import java.net.URI;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.net.http.HttpRequest;
import java.net.http.HttpResponse;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;

public class ReadWebsiteContent {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // Creates HttpClient object with default configuration.
        HttpClient httpClient = HttpClient.newHttpClient();

        // Creates HttpRequest object and set the URI to be requested, 
        // when not defined the default request method is the GET request.
        HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()

        // Sends the request and print out the returned response.
        HttpResponse<String> response = httpClient.send(request,

        System.out.println("Status Code: " + response.statusCode());
        System.out.println("Headers    : " + response.headers().toString());
        System.out.println("Body       : " + response.body());

Here is the content of the website that we read using the code snippet above:

Status Code: 200
Headers    : java.net.http.HttpHeaders@2d299ad6 { {:status=[200], cf-cache-status=[DYNAMIC], cf-ray=[5875b78d5df2eb00-LAX], cf-request-id=[023d710c5b0000eb00b738f200000001], content-length=[116], content-type=[text/x-rst;charset=utf-8], date=[Tue, 21 Apr 2020 08:25:53 GMT], etag=["234b9a1fe19f125356a5396c8cc72d54493a2eef"], expect-ct=[max-age=604800, report-uri="https://report-uri.cloudflare.com/cdn-cgi/beacon/expect-ct"], server=[cloudflare], set-cookie=[__cfduid=d5bdb6d828be3bb85d0f1f4c2ff81041c1587457553; expires=Thu, 21-May-20 08:25:53 GMT; path=/; domain=.httpie.org; HttpOnly; SameSite=Lax]} }
Body       : 

Hello, World! 👋

Thank you for trying out HTTPie 🥳

I hope this will become a friendship.