How do I convert Map into JSON?

This example show you how to convert a java.util.Map into JSON string and back to Map again.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;
import com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken;

import java.lang.reflect.Type;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class MapToJson {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Map<String, String> colours = new HashMap<>();
        colours.put("BLACK", "#000000");
        colours.put("RED", "#FF0000");
        colours.put("GREEN", "#008000");
        colours.put("BLUE", "#0000FF");
        colours.put("YELLOW", "#FFFF00");
        colours.put("WHITE", "#FFFFFF");

        // Convert a Map into JSON string.
        Gson gson = new Gson();
        String json = gson.toJson(colours);
        System.out.println("json = " + json);

        // Convert JSON string back to Map.
        Type type = new TypeToken<Map<String, String>>(){}.getType();
        Map<String, String> map = gson.fromJson(json, type);
        for (String key : map.keySet()) {
            System.out.println("map.get = " + map.get(key));
        }
    }
}

Here is the result of the program:

json = {"RED":"#FF0000","WHITE":"#FFFFFF","BLUE":"#0000FF","BLACK":"#000000","YELLOW":"#FFFF00","GREEN":"#008000"}
map.get = #FF0000
map.get = #FFFFFF
map.get = #0000FF
map.get = #000000
map.get = #FFFF00
map.get = #008000

Maven Dependencies

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>

How do I convert collections into JSON?

This example show you how to convert Java collections object into JSON string. For Student class use in this example you can find it the previous example on How do I convert object into JSON?.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;
import com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken;

import java.lang.reflect.Type;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.List;

public class CollectionToJson {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //
        // Converts a collection of string object into JSON string.
        //
        List<String> names = new ArrayList<String>();
        names.add("Alice");
        names.add("Bob");
        names.add("Carol");
        names.add("Mallory");

        Gson gson = new Gson();
        String jsonNames = gson.toJson(names);
        System.out.println("jsonNames = " + jsonNames);

        //
        // Converts a collection Student object into JSON string
        //
        Student a = new Student("Alice", "Apple St", getDOB(2000, 10, 1));
        Student b = new Student("Bob", "Banana St", null);
        Student c = new Student("Carol", "Grape St", getDOB(2000, 5, 21));
        Student d = new Student("Mallory", "Mango St", null);

        List<Student> students = new ArrayList<Student>();
        students.add(a);
        students.add(b);
        students.add(c);
        students.add(d);

        gson = new Gson();
        String jsonStudents = gson.toJson(students);
        System.out.println("jsonStudents = " + jsonStudents);

        //
        // Converts JSON string into a collection of Student object.
        //
        Type type = new TypeToken<List<Student>>() {
        }.getType();
        List<Student> studentList = gson.fromJson(jsonStudents, type);

        for (Student student : studentList) {
            System.out.println("student.getName() = " + student.getName());
        }
    }

    private static Date getDOB(int year, int month, int date) {
        Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
        calendar.set(Calendar.YEAR, year);
        calendar.set(Calendar.MONTH, month - 1);
        calendar.set(Calendar.DATE, date);
        calendar.set(Calendar.HOUR, 0);
        calendar.set(Calendar.MINUTE, 0);
        calendar.set(Calendar.SECOND, 0);
        return calendar.getTime();
    }
}

Here is the result of our program:

jsonNames = ["Alice","Bob","Carol","Mallory"]
jsonStudents = [{"name":"Alice","address":"Apple St","dateOfBirth":"Nov 1, 3900 12:00:00 AM"},{"name":"Bob","address":"Banana St"},{"name":"Carol","address":"Grape St","dateOfBirth":"Jun 21, 3900 12:00:00 AM"},{"name":"Mallory","address":"Mango St"}]
student.getName() = Alice
student.getName() = Bob
student.getName() = Carol
student.getName() = Mallory

Maven Dependencies

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>

How do I convert array into JSON?

In the example below you can see how to convert an array into JSON string. We serialize the array to JSON using the Gson.toJson() method. To deserialize a string of JSON into array we use the Gson.fromJson() method.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;

public class ArrayToJson {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] numbers = {1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13};
        String[] days = {"Sun", "Mon", "Tue", "Wed", "Thu", "Fri", "Sat"};

        // Create a new instance of Gson
        Gson gson = new Gson();

        // Convert numbers array into JSON string.
        String numbersJson = gson.toJson(numbers);

        // Convert strings array into JSON string
        String daysJson = gson.toJson(days);
        System.out.println("numbersJson = " + numbersJson);
        System.out.println("daysJson = " + daysJson);

        // Convert from JSON string to a primitive array of int.
        int[] fibonacci = gson.fromJson(numbersJson, int[].class);
        for (int number : fibonacci) {
            System.out.print(number + " ");
        }
        System.out.println("");

        // Convert from JSON string to a string array.
        String[] weekDays = gson.fromJson(daysJson, String[].class);
        for (String weekDay : weekDays) {
            System.out.print(weekDay + " ");
        }
        System.out.println("");

        // Converting multidimensional array into JSON
        int[][] data = {{1, 2, 3}, {3, 4, 5}, {4, 5, 6}};
        String json = gson.toJson(data);
        System.out.println("Data = " + json);

        // Convert JSON string into multidimensional array of int.
        int[][] dataMap = gson.fromJson(json, int[][].class);
        for (int[] i : dataMap) {
            for (int j : i) {
                System.out.print(j + " ");
            }
            System.out.println("");
        }
    }
}

Here is our code result:

numbersJson = [1,1,2,3,5,8,13]
daysJson = ["Sun","Mon","Tue","Wed","Thu","Fri","Sat"]
1 1 2 3 5 8 13 
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 
Data = [[1,2,3],[3,4,5],[4,5,6]]
1 2 3 
3 4 5 
4 5 6

Maven Dependencies

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>

How does Gson handles object fields?

In this example you’ll see how the Gson library handles the object fields. For object fields to be serialized into JSON string it doesn’t need to use any annotations, it can even read private fields. If you have a null value field it will not be serialized into JSON string. To exclude a field from serialization you can mark the field with the transient keyword.

In the snippet below we create a People object. This object has a null value field named age, this will not included in the serialization because we didn’t assign any value to it. The secret field is also not serialized because we mark it with transient keyword.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;

import java.util.Calendar;

public class GsonFieldExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Calendar dob = Calendar.getInstance();
        dob.set(1980, Calendar.NOVEMBER, 11);
        People people = new People("John", "350 Banana St.", dob.getTime());
        people.setSecret("This is a secret!");

        Gson gson = new Gson();
        String json = gson.toJson(people);
        System.out.println("json = " + json);
    }
}

If your run the code above you’ll see the following line printed:

json = {"name":"John","address":"350 Banana St.","dateOfBirth":"Nov 11, 1980 8:47:04 AM"}

Here is the People class.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import java.util.Date;

public class People {
    private String name;
    private String address;
    private Date dateOfBirth;
    private Integer age;
    private transient String secret;

    public People(String name, String address, Date dateOfBirth) {
        this.name = name;
        this.address = address;
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;
    }

    public String getSecret() {
        return secret;
    }

    public void setSecret(String secret) {
        this.secret = secret;
    }
}

Maven Dependencies

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>

How do I convert JSON into object?

On the previous example, How do I convert object into JSON? we convert object into JSON string. In this example you will see how to do the opposite, converting JSON string back into object.

To convert JSON string to object use Gson.fromJson() method. This method takes the JSON string and the object type of the JSON string to be converted.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;

public class JSONToStudent {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String json = "{" +
                "'name' : 'Duke'," +
                "'address' : 'Menlo Park'," +
                "'dateOfBirth' : 'Feb 1, 2000 12:00:00 AM'" +
                "}";

        Gson gson = new Gson();
        Student student = gson.fromJson(json, Student.class);

        System.out.println("s.getName()        = " + student.getName());
        System.out.println("s.getAddress()     = " + student.getAddress());
        System.out.println("s.getDateOfBirth() = " + student.getDateOfBirth());
    }
}

This example will print the following result:

s.getName()        = Duke
s.getAddress()     = Menlo Park
s.getDateOfBirth() = Tue Feb 01 00:00:00 WITA 2000

You can find the Student class on the previous example, How do I convert object into JSON?.

Maven Dependencies

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>

How do I convert object into JSON?

In this example we are using Google Gson to convert an object (Student object) into JSON notation. Practically we can use this library to convert any object in Java and it is quite simple. You just need to create an instance of Gson class and then call the .toJson() method and pass the object to be converted into JSON string.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import com.google.gson.Gson;

import java.util.Calendar;

public class StudentToJson {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Calendar dob = Calendar.getInstance();
        dob.set(2000, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0);
        Student student = new Student("Duke", "Menlo Park", dob.getTime());

        Gson gson = new Gson();
        String json = gson.toJson(student);
        System.out.println("json = " + json);
    }
}

When you run the example above you’ll get an output like:

json = {"name":"Duke","address":"Menlo Park","dateOfBirth":"Feb 1, 2000 12:00:00 AM"}

Below is our Student class.

package org.kodejava.example.google.gson;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.Date;

public class Student implements Serializable {
    private String name;
    private String address;
    private Date dateOfBirth;

    public Student() {
    }

    public Student(String name, String address, Date dateOfBirth) {
        this.name = name;
        this.address = address;
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getAddress() {
        return address;
    }

    public void setAddress(String address) {
        this.address = address;
    }

    public Date getDateOfBirth() {
        return dateOfBirth;
    }

    public void setDateOfBirth(Date dateOfBirth) {
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;
    }
}

Maven Dependencies


<dependency>
    <groupId>com.google.code.gson</groupId>
    <artifactId>gson</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.2</version>
</dependency>