How do I load file from resource directory?

In the following code snippet we will learn how to load files from resource directory or folder. Resource files can be in a form of image, audio, text, etc. Text resource file for example can be use to store application configurations, such as database configuration.

To load this resource file you can use a couple methods utilizing the java.lang.Class methods or the java.lang.ClassLoader methods. Both Class and ClassLoader provides getResource() and getResourceAsStream() methods to load resource file. The first method return a URL object while the second method return an InputStream.

When using the Class method, if the resource name started with “/” that identifies it is an absolute name. Absolute name means that it will load from the specified directory name or package name. While if it is not started with “/” then it is identified as a relative name. This means that it will look in the same package as the class that tries to load the resource.

App.class.getResource("database.conf");

The snippet will attempt to load the resource file from the same package as the App class. If the App class package is org.kodejava then the database.conf file must be located at /org/kodejava/. This is the relative resource name.

App.class.getResource("/org/kodejava/conf/database.conf"):

The snippet will attempt to load the resource file from the given package name. You should place the configuration file under /org/kodejava/conf/ to enable the application to load it. This is the absolute resource name. Below is a snippet that use the Class method to load resources.

private void loadUsingClassMethod() throws IOException {
    System.out.println("LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassMethod");
    Properties properties = new Properties();

    // Load resource relatively to the LoadResourceFile package.
    // This actually load resource from 
    // "/org/kodejava/example/lang/database.conf".
    URL resource = getClass().getResource("database.conf");
    properties.load(new FileReader(new File(resource.getFile())));
    System.out.println("JDBC Driver: " + properties.get("jdbc.driver"));

    // Load resource using absolute name. This will read resource
    // from the root of the package. This will load "/database.conf".
    InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/database.conf");
    properties.load(is);
    System.out.println("JDBC Driver: " + properties.get("jdbc.driver"));
}

When we use the ClassLoader method the resource name should not begins with a “/“. This method will not apply any absolute / relative transformation to the resource name like the Class method. Here a snippet of a method that use the ClassLoader method.

private void loadUsingClassLoaderMethod() throws IOException {
    System.out.println("LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod");
    Properties properties = new Properties();

    // When using the ClassLoader method the resource name should
    // not started with "/". This method will not apply any
    // absolute/relative transformation to the resource name.
    ClassLoader classLoader = getClass().getClassLoader();
    URL resource = classLoader.getResource("database.conf");
    properties.load(new FileReader(new File(resource.getFile())));
    System.out.println("JDBC URL: " + properties.get("jdbc.url"));

    InputStream is = classLoader.getResourceAsStream("database.conf");
    properties.load(is);
    System.out.println("JDBC URL: " + properties.get("jdbc.url"));
}

Below is the main program that calls the methods above.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.Properties;

public class LoadResourceFile {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        LoadResourceFile demo = new LoadResourceFile();
        demo.loadUsingClassMethod();
        demo.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod();
    }
}

In the snippet above we load two difference resources. One contains Oracle database configuration and the other is MySQL database configuration.

/resources/org/kodejava/example/lang/database.conf

jdbc.driver=oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver
jdbc.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe
jdbc.username=kodejava
jdbc.password=kodejava123

/resources/database.conf

jdbc.driver=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava
jdbc.username=kodejava
jdbc.password=kodejava123

The result of this code snippet are:

LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassMethod
JDBC Driver: oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver
JDBC Driver: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver

LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod
JDBC URL: jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava
JDBC URL: jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava

How do I create and implement abstract class?

Abstract class is a class that have one or more methods declared, but not defined. Abstract class cannot have instances. This class uses in inheritance to take advantage of polymorphism. To declare that a class is abstract, use the abstract keyword in front of the class keyword in the class definition.

Methods in abstract class that have no definition are called abstract methods. The declaration for an abstract method ends with a semicolon and you specify the method with the abstract keyword to identify it as such. The implementation is left to the sub classes.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public abstract class Animal {
    private String species;

    public Animal(String species) {
        this.species = species;
    }

    public abstract void makeASound();

    public String getSpecies() {
        return species;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Animal pig = new Pig("Warthog");
        pig.makeASound();
    }
}

The Pig class extends the Animal class. Because the Animal class contains an abstract method makeASound() the Pig class must implements this method or else the Pig will also become an abstract class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Pig extends Animal {

    public Pig(String species) {
        super(species);
    }

    @Override
    public void makeASound() {
        System.out.println("oink oink");
    }
}

How do I extend classes in Java?

Inheritance is one of object oriented programming concepts. This concept allows classes to inherit commonly used state and behavior from other classes. Inheritance is the way to put commonly used states and behaviors into one class and reuse it.

The class that inherits all the attributes from other class is called as sub class. While, the class that inherited is called as superclass. You can use the extends keyword in class definition to inherit from other classes.

When you apply the final keyword to the class declaration you will make the class final, a final class cannot be extended by other class.

For example below we have, a Truck class and a Sedan that derived from a Car class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class CarDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Car car = new Car();
        car.setBrand("Honda");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + car.getBrand());

        // The setBrand() and getBrand() is inherited from the Car
        // class.
        Truck truck = new Truck();
        truck.setBrand("Ford");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + truck.getBrand());
        truck.getLoadCapacity();

        // The setBrand(), getBrand() and setNumberOfSeat methods
        // are is inherited from the Car class.
        Sedan sedan = new Sedan();
        sedan.setBrand("Hyundai");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + sedan.getBrand());
        sedan.setNumberOfSeat(2);
        sedan.getGearType();
    }
}

Here the definition of the Car, the Truck and the Sedan classes.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Car {
    private String type;
    private String brand;
    private String model;
    private int numberOfSeat;

    public Car() {
    }

    public Car(String type, String brand, String model) {
        this.type = type;
        this.brand = brand;
        this.model = model;
    }

    public String getType() {
        return type;
    }

    public void setType(String type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    public String getBrand() {
        return brand;
    }

    public void setBrand(String brand) {
        this.brand = brand;
    }

    public String getModel() {
        return model;
    }

    public void setModel(String model) {
        this.model = model;
    }

    public int getNumberOfSeat() {
        return numberOfSeat;
    }

    public void setNumberOfSeat(int numberOfSeat) {
        this.numberOfSeat = numberOfSeat;
    }

    public String getCarInfo() {
        return "Type: " + type
                + "; Brand: " + brand
                + "; Model: " + model;
    }
}
package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Truck extends Car {
    private int loadCapacity;

    public Truck() {
    }

    public Truck(String type, String brand, String model) {
        super(type, brand, model);
    }

    public int getLoadCapacity() {
        return loadCapacity;
    }

    public void setLoadCapacity(int loadCapacity) {
        this.loadCapacity = loadCapacity;
    }

    @Override
    public String getCarInfo() {
        return "Type: " + getType()
                + "; Brand: " + getBrand()
                + "; Model: " + getModel()
                + "; Load capacity: " + getLoadCapacity();
    }
}
package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Sedan extends Car {
    private int gearType;

    public Sedan() {
    }

    public int getGearType() {
        return gearType;
    }

    public void setGearType(int gearType) {
        this.gearType = gearType;
    }
}