How do I load file from resource directory?

In the following code snippet we will learn how to load files from resource directory or folder. Resource files can be in a form of image, audio, text, etc. Text resource file for example can be use to store application configurations, such as database configuration.

To load this resource file you can use a couple methods utilizing the java.lang.Class methods or the java.lang.ClassLoader methods. Both Class and ClassLoader provides getResource() and getResourceAsStream() methods to load resource file. The first method return a URL object while the second method return an InputStream.

When using the Class method, if the resource name started with “/” that identifies it is an absolute name. Absolute name means that it will load from the specified directory name or package name. While if it is not started with “/” then it is identified as a relative name. This means that it will look in the same package as the class that tries to load the resource.

App.class.getResource("database.conf");

The snippet will attempt to load the resource file from the same package as the App class. If the App class package is org.kodejava then the database.conf file must be located at /org/kodejava/. This is the relative resource name.

App.class.getResource("/org/kodejava/conf/database.conf"):

The snippet will attempt to load the resource file from the given package name. You should place the configuration file under /org/kodejava/conf/ to enable the application to load it. This is the absolute resource name. Below is a snippet that use the Class method to load resources.

private void loadUsingClassMethod() throws IOException {
    System.out.println("LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassMethod");
    Properties properties = new Properties();

    // Load resource relatively to the LoadResourceFile package.
    // This actually load resource from 
    // "/org/kodejava/example/lang/database.conf".
    URL resource = getClass().getResource("database.conf");
    properties.load(new FileReader(new File(resource.getFile())));
    System.out.println("JDBC Driver: " + properties.get("jdbc.driver"));

    // Load resource using absolute name. This will read resource
    // from the root of the package. This will load "/database.conf".
    InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/database.conf");
    properties.load(is);
    System.out.println("JDBC Driver: " + properties.get("jdbc.driver"));
}

When we use the ClassLoader method the resource name should not begins with a “/“. This method will not apply any absolute / relative transformation to the resource name like the Class method. Here a snippet of a method that use the ClassLoader method.

private void loadUsingClassLoaderMethod() throws IOException {
    System.out.println("LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod");
    Properties properties = new Properties();

    // When using the ClassLoader method the resource name should
    // not started with "/". This method will not apply any
    // absolute/relative transformation to the resource name.
    ClassLoader classLoader = getClass().getClassLoader();
    URL resource = classLoader.getResource("database.conf");
    properties.load(new FileReader(new File(resource.getFile())));
    System.out.println("JDBC URL: " + properties.get("jdbc.url"));

    InputStream is = classLoader.getResourceAsStream("database.conf");
    properties.load(is);
    System.out.println("JDBC URL: " + properties.get("jdbc.url"));
}

Below is the main program that calls the methods above.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.Properties;

public class LoadResourceFile {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        LoadResourceFile demo = new LoadResourceFile();
        demo.loadUsingClassMethod();
        demo.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod();
    }
}

In the snippet above we load two difference resources. One contains Oracle database configuration and the other is MySQL database configuration.

/resources/org/kodejava/example/lang/database.conf

jdbc.driver=oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver
jdbc.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe
jdbc.username=kodejava
jdbc.password=kodejava123

/resources/database.conf

jdbc.driver=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava
jdbc.username=kodejava
jdbc.password=kodejava123

The result of this code snippet are:

LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassMethod
JDBC Driver: oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver
JDBC Driver: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver

LoadResourceFile.loadUsingClassLoaderMethod
JDBC URL: jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava
JDBC URL: jdbc:mysql://localhost/kodejava

How do I get the component type of an array?

The Class.getComponentType() method call returns the Class representing the component type of an array. If this class does not represent an array class this method returns null reference instead.

package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

public class ComponentTypeDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String[] words = {"and", "the"};
        int[][] matrix = {{1, 1}, {2, 1}};
        Double number = 10.0;

        Class clazz = words.getClass();
        Class cls = matrix.getClass();
        Class clz = number.getClass();

        // Gets the type of an array component.
        Class type = clazz.getComponentType();
        System.out.println("Words type: " +
                type.getCanonicalName());

        // Gets the type of an array component.
        Class matrixType = cls.getComponentType();
        System.out.println("Matrix type: " +
                matrixType.getCanonicalName());

        // It will return null if the class doesn't represent
        // an array.
        Class numberType = clz.getComponentType();
        if (numberType != null) {
            System.out.println("Number type: " +
                    numberType.getCanonicalName());
        } else {
            System.out.println(number.getClass().getName() +
                    " class is not an array");
        }
    }
}

This program print the following output:

Words type: java.lang.String
Matrix type: int[]
java.lang.Double class is not an array

How do I determine if a class object represents an array class?

For checking if a class object is representing an array class we can use the isArray() method call of the Class object. This method returns true if the checked object represents an array class and false otherwise.

package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

public class IsArrayDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[][] matrix = {{1, 1}, {2, 1}};
        Class clazz = matrix.getClass();

        // Check if the class object represents an array class
        if (clazz.isArray()) {
            System.out.println(clazz.getSimpleName() +
                    " is an array class.");
        } else {
            System.out.println(clazz.getSimpleName() +
                    " is not an array class.");
        }
    }
}

How do I get direct superclass and interfaces of a class?

Java reflection also dealing with inheritance concepts. You can get the direct interfaces and direct super class of a class by using method getInterfaces() and getSuperclass() of java.lang.Class object.

  • getInterfaces() will returns an array of Class objects that represent the direct super interfaces of the target Class object.
  • getSuperclass() will returns the Class object representing the direct super class of the target Class object or null if the target represents Object class, an interface, a primitive type, or void.
package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

import javax.swing.*;
import java.util.Date;

public class GetSuperClassDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        GetSuperClassDemo.get(String.class);
        GetSuperClassDemo.get(Date.class);
        GetSuperClassDemo.get(JButton.class);
        GetSuperClassDemo.get(Timer.class);
    }

    public static void get(Class clazz) {
        // Gets array of direct interface of clazz object
        Class[] interfaces = clazz.getInterfaces();

        System.out.format("Direct Interfaces of %s:%n",
                clazz.getName());
        for (Class clz : interfaces) {
            System.out.println(clz.getName());
        }

        // Gets direct superclass of clazz object
        Class superclz = clazz.getSuperclass();
        System.out.format("Direct Superclass of %s: is %s %n",
                clazz.getName(), superclz.getName());
        System.out.println("====================================");
    }
}

Here is the result of the code snippet:

Direct Interfaces of java.lang.String:
java.io.Serializable
java.lang.Comparable
java.lang.CharSequence
Direct Superclass of java.lang.String: is java.lang.Object 
====================================
Direct Interfaces of java.util.Date:
java.io.Serializable
java.lang.Cloneable
java.lang.Comparable
Direct Superclass of java.util.Date: is java.lang.Object 
====================================
Direct Interfaces of javax.swing.JButton:
javax.accessibility.Accessible
Direct Superclass of javax.swing.JButton: is javax.swing.AbstractButton 
====================================
Direct Interfaces of javax.swing.Timer:
java.io.Serializable
Direct Superclass of javax.swing.Timer: is java.lang.Object 
====================================

How do I check if a class represent an interface type?

You can use the isInterface() method call of the java.lang.Class to identify if a class objects represent an interface type.

package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

import java.io.Serializable;

public class IsInterfaceDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        IsInterfaceDemo.get(Serializable.class);
        IsInterfaceDemo.get(Long.class);
    }

    private static void get(Class clazz) {
        if (clazz.isInterface()) {
            System.out.println(clazz.getName() +
                    " is an interface type.");
        } else {
            System.out.println(clazz.getName() +
                    " is not an interface type.");
        }
    }
}

Here is the result of the program:

java.io.Serializable is an interface type.
java.lang.Long is not an interface type.

How do I check if a class represent a primitive type?

Java uses class objects to represent all eight primitive types. A class object that represents a primitive type can be identified using the isPrimitive() method call. void is not a type in Java, but the isPrimitive() method returns true for void.class.

package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

public class IsPrimitiveDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        IsPrimitiveDemo.get(int.class);
        IsPrimitiveDemo.get(String.class);
        IsPrimitiveDemo.get(double.class);
        IsPrimitiveDemo.get(void.class);
    }

    private static void get(Class clazz) {
        if (clazz.isPrimitive()) {
            System.out.println(clazz.getName() +
                    " is a primitive type.");
        } else {
            System.out.println(clazz.getName() +
                    " is not a primitive type.");            
        }
    }
}

Here is the result of the program:

int is a primitive type.
java.lang.String is not a primitive type.
double is a primitive type.
void is a primitive type.

How do I get information regarding class name?

package org.kodejava.example.lang.reflect;

import java.util.Date;

public class ClassNameDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Date date = new Date();

        // Gets the Class of the date instance.
        Class clazz = date.getClass();

        // Gets the name of the class.
        String name = clazz.getName();
        System.out.println("Class name     : " + name);

        // Gets the canonical name of the class.
        String canonical = clazz.getCanonicalName();
        System.out.println("Canonical name : " + canonical);

        // Gets the simple name of the class.
        String simple = clazz.getSimpleName();
        System.out.println("Simple name    : " + simple);
    }
}

Here are the information printed out by the program:

Class name     : java.util.Date
Canonical name : java.util.Date
Simple name    : Date

How do I create and implement abstract class?

Abstract class is a class that have one or more methods declared, but not defined. Abstract class cannot have instances. This class uses in inheritance to take advantage of polymorphism. To declare that a class is abstract, use the abstract keyword in front of the class keyword in the class definition.

Methods in abstract class that have no definition are called abstract methods. The declaration for an abstract method ends with a semicolon and you specify the method with the abstract keyword to identify it as such. The implementation is left to the sub classes.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public abstract class Animal {
    private String species;

    public Animal(String species) {
        this.species = species;
    }

    public abstract void makeASound();

    public String getSpecies() {
        return species;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Animal pig = new Pig("Warthog");
        pig.makeASound();
    }
}

The Pig class extends the Animal class. Because the Animal class contains an abstract method makeASound() the Pig class must implements this method or else the Pig will also become an abstract class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Pig extends Animal {

    public Pig(String species) {
        super(species);
    }

    @Override
    public void makeASound() {
        System.out.println("oink oink");
    }
}

How do I extend classes in Java?

Inheritance is one of object oriented programming concepts. This concept allows classes to inherit commonly used state and behavior from other classes. Inheritance is the way to put commonly used states and behaviors into one class and reuse it.

The class that inherits all the attributes from other class is called as sub class. While, the class that inherited is called as superclass. You can use the extends keyword in class definition to inherit from other classes.

When you apply the final keyword to the class declaration you will make the class final, a final class cannot be extended by other class.

For example below we have, a Truck class and a Sedan that derived from a Car class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class CarDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Car car = new Car();
        car.setBrand("Honda");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + car.getBrand());

        // The setBrand() and getBrand() is inherited from the Car
        // class.
        Truck truck = new Truck();
        truck.setBrand("Ford");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + truck.getBrand());
        truck.getLoadCapacity();

        // The setBrand(), getBrand() and setNumberOfSeat methods
        // are is inherited from the Car class.
        Sedan sedan = new Sedan();
        sedan.setBrand("Hyundai");
        System.out.println("Brand = " + sedan.getBrand());
        sedan.setNumberOfSeat(2);
        sedan.getGearType();
    }
}

Here the definition of the Car, the Truck and the Sedan classes.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Car {
    private String type;
    private String brand;
    private String model;
    private int numberOfSeat;

    public Car() {
    }

    public Car(String type, String brand, String model) {
        this.type = type;
        this.brand = brand;
        this.model = model;
    }

    public String getType() {
        return type;
    }

    public void setType(String type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    public String getBrand() {
        return brand;
    }

    public void setBrand(String brand) {
        this.brand = brand;
    }

    public String getModel() {
        return model;
    }

    public void setModel(String model) {
        this.model = model;
    }

    public int getNumberOfSeat() {
        return numberOfSeat;
    }

    public void setNumberOfSeat(int numberOfSeat) {
        this.numberOfSeat = numberOfSeat;
    }

    public String getCarInfo() {
        return "Type: " + type
                + "; Brand: " + brand
                + "; Model: " + model;
    }
}
package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Truck extends Car {
    private int loadCapacity;

    public Truck() {
    }

    public Truck(String type, String brand, String model) {
        super(type, brand, model);
    }

    public int getLoadCapacity() {
        return loadCapacity;
    }

    public void setLoadCapacity(int loadCapacity) {
        this.loadCapacity = loadCapacity;
    }

    @Override
    public String getCarInfo() {
        return "Type: " + getType()
                + "; Brand: " + getBrand()
                + "; Model: " + getModel()
                + "; Load capacity: " + getLoadCapacity();
    }
}
package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Sedan extends Car {
    private int gearType;

    public Sedan() {
    }

    public int getGearType() {
        return gearType;
    }

    public void setGearType(int gearType) {
        this.gearType = gearType;
    }
}

How do I create a class in Java?

A class is a specification or blueprint from which individual objects are created. A class contains fields that represent the object’s states and methods that defines the operations that are possible on the objects of the class.

The file name that contains the definition of a class is always the same as the public class name and the extension is .java to identify that the file contains a Java source code.

A class has constructors, a special method that is used to create an instance or object of the class. When no constructor define a default constructor will be used. The constructor method have the same name with the class name without a return value. The constructors can have parameters that will be used to initialize object’s states.

Here is a Person.java file that defines the Person class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class Person {
    private String name;
    private String title;
    private String address;

    /**
     * Constructor to create Person object
     */
    public Person() {

    }

    /**
     * Constructor with parameter
     *
     * @param name
     */
    public Person(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    /**
     * Method to get the name of person
     *
     * @return name
     */
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    /**
     * Method to set the name of person
     *
     * @param name
     */
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    /**
     * Method to get the title of person
     *
     * @return title
     */
    public String getTitle() {
        return title;
    }

    /**
     * Method to set the title of person
     *
     * @param title
     */
    public void setTitle(String title) {
        this.title = title;
    }

    /**
     * Method to get address of person
     *
     * @return address
     */
    public String getAddress() {
        return address;
    }

    /**
     * Method to set the address of person
     *
     * @param address
     */
    public void setAddress(String address) {
        this.address = address;
    }

    /**
     * Method to get name with title of person
     *
     * @return nameTitle
     */
    public String getNameWithTitle() {
        String nameTitle;
        if (title != null) {
            nameTitle = name + ", " + title;
        } else {
            nameTitle = name;
        }
        return nameTitle;
    }

    /**
     * Method used to print the information of person
     */
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "Info [" +
                "name='" + name + ''' +
                ", title='" + title + ''' +
                ", address='" + address + ''' +
                ']';
    }
}

Here is a ClassExample.java file that defines the ClassExample class that use the Person class.

package org.kodejava.example.fundamental;

public class ClassExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Person person = new Person();
        person.setName("Andy");
        person.setTitle("MBA");
        person.setAddress("NY City");
        System.out.println(person);

        String nameTitle1 = person.getNameWithTitle();
        System.out.println("Name with title: " + nameTitle1);

        Person person2 = new Person("Sarah");
        String nameTitle2 = person2.getNameWithTitle();
        System.out.println("Name with title 2: " + nameTitle2);
    }
}