How to convert Java object to JSON string?

The following example shows how to convert Java object into JSON string using Jackson. Jackson provide ObjectMapper class provides functionality to read and write JSON data. The writeValueAsString(Object) method to serialize any Java object into string.

package org.kodejava.example.jackson;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;

public class ObjectToJson {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Artist artist = new Artist();
        artist.setId(1L);
        artist.setName("The Beatles");

        ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
        try {
            String json = mapper.writeValueAsString(artist);
            System.out.println("JSON = " + json);
        } catch (JsonProcessingException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

Running the code snippet above will print out the following result:

JSON = {"id":1,"name":"The Beatles"}

The structure of Artist class.

package org.kodejava.example.jackson;

public class Artist {
    private Long id;
    private String name;

    public Artist() {
    }

    public Artist(Long id, String name) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
    }

    // Getters & Setters
}

Maven Dependencies

<!-- http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/fasterxml/jackson/core/jackson-core/2.8.6/jackson-core-2.8.6.jar -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
    <artifactId>jackson-core</artifactId>
    <version>2.8.6</version>
</dependency>
<!-- http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/fasterxml/jackson/core/jackson-annotations/2.8.6/jackson-annotations-2.8.6.jar -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
    <artifactId>jackson-annotations</artifactId>
    <version>2.8.6</version>
</dependency>
<!-- http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/fasterxml/jackson/core/jackson-databind/2.8.6/jackson-databind-2.8.6.jar -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
    <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
    <version>2.8.6</version>
</dependency>

How do I do multipart upload using HttpClient?

This example demonstrates how to do multipart upload using the Apache HttpClient library. In this example we upload a single file. We start by creating an object of the file to be uploaded. The FileBody represent the binary body part of the file.

Next, prepare the HttpEntity object by create an instance of MultipartEntityBuilder. Add parts to this object, in this case we add the fileBody. We can add multiple part to this object as the name says. It can be string, file, etc as we do in a normal web form.

The build() method of the builder object finalize the entity creation and return us the HttpEntity object. To send / upload to server we create an HttpPost request and set the entity to be posted. Finally the execute() method of the HttpClient object send the multipart object to server.

package org.kodejava.example.httpclient;

import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.client.HttpClient;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.entity.ContentType;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.HttpMultipartMode;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.MultipartEntityBuilder;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.content.FileBody;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClientBuilder;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;

public class HttpPostMultipartExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        File file = new File("data.zip");
        FileBody fileBody = new FileBody(file, ContentType.DEFAULT_BINARY);

        MultipartEntityBuilder builder = MultipartEntityBuilder.create();
        builder.setMode(HttpMultipartMode.BROWSER_COMPATIBLE);
        builder.addPart("file", fileBody);
        HttpEntity entity = builder.build();

        HttpPost request = new HttpPost("http://localhost:8080/upload");
        request.setEntity(entity);

        HttpClient client = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();
        try {
            client.execute(request);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

To receive the file on the server you can take a look at the servlet code in the following example: How do I create a web based file upload?.

Maven Dependencies

<!-- http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient/4.5.3/httpclient-4.5.3.jar -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
    <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
    <version>4.5.3</version>
</dependency>
<!-- http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpmime/4.5.3/httpmime-4.5.3.jar -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
    <artifactId>httpmime</artifactId>
    <version>4.5.3</version>
</dependency>

How do I convert number into Roman Numerals?

You want to convert numbers into their Roman numerals representation and vice versa. The solution here is to tackle the problem as a unary problem where the Roman numerals represented as a single element, the “I” character. We start by representing the number as a repeated sequence of the “I” characters. And then replace the characters according to next bigger symbol in roman numeral.

To convert from the Roman numerals to numbers we reverse the process. By the end of the process we will get a sequence of repeated “I” characters. The length of the final string returned by this process is the result of the roman numerals conversion to number.

In the code snippet below we create two methods. The toRoman(int number) method for converting number to roman numerals and the toNumber(String roman) method for converting from roman numerals to number. Both of this method utilize the String.replace() method for calculating the conversion result.

Let’s see the code in action.

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class RomanNumber {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        for (int n = 1; n <= 4999; n++) {
            String roman = RomanNumber.toRoman(n);
            int number = RomanNumber.toNumber(roman);

            System.out.println(number + " = " + roman);
        }
    }

    private static String toRoman(int number) {
        return String.valueOf(new char[number]).replace('\0', 'I')
                .replace("IIIII", "V")
                .replace("IIII", "IV")
                .replace("VV", "X")
                .replace("VIV", "IX")
                .replace("XXXXX", "L")
                .replace("XXXX", "XL")
                .replace("LL", "C")
                .replace("LXL", "XC")
                .replace("CCCCC", "D")
                .replace("CCCC", "CD")
                .replace("DD", "M")
                .replace("DCD", "CM");
    }

    private static Integer toNumber(String roman) {
        return roman.replace("CM", "DCD")
                .replace("M", "DD")
                .replace("CD", "CCCC")
                .replace("D", "CCCCC")
                .replace("XC", "LXL")
                .replace("C", "LL")
                .replace("XL", "XXXX")
                .replace("L", "XXXXX")
                .replace("IX", "VIV")
                .replace("X", "VV")
                .replace("IV", "IIII")
                .replace("V", "IIIII").length();
    }
}

The 10 randoms result of the conversion listed below:

18 = XVIII
208 = CCVIII
843 = DCCCXLIII
1995 = MCMXCV
2000 = MM
2017 = MMXVII
2562 = MMDLXII
3276 = MMMCCLXXVI
4067 = MMMMLXVII
4994 = MMMMCMXCIV