How do I fill array with non-default value?

This code snippet will show you how to create array variable and initialized it with a non-default value. By default, when we create an array of something in Java all entries will have its default value. For primitive types like int, long, float the default value are zero (0 or 0.0). For reference types (anything that holds an object in it) will have null as the default value. For boolean variable it will be false.

If you want to initialize the array to different value you can use the Arrays.fill() method. This method will help you to set the value for every elements of the array.

Let see the following code snippet as an example:

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.util.Arrays;

public class ArraysFillExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Assign -1 to each elements of numbers array
        int[] numbers = new int[5];
        Arrays.fill(numbers, -1);
        System.out.println("Numbers: " + Arrays.toString(numbers));

        // Assign 1.0f to each elements of prices array
        float[] prices = new float[5];
        Arrays.fill(prices, 1.0f);
        System.out.println("Prices : " + Arrays.toString(prices));

        // Assign empty string to each elements of words array
        String[] words = new String[5];
        Arrays.fill(words, "");
        System.out.println("Words  : " + Arrays.toString(words));

        // Assign 9 to each elements of the multi array
        int[][] multi = new int[3][3];
        for (int[] array : multi) {
            Arrays.fill(array, 9);
        }
        System.out.println("Multi  : " + Arrays.deepToString(multi));
    }
}

In the code snippet above we utilize the Arrays.fill() utility method to assign value for each elements of the int, float and String array. To change the default value of multi dimensional array we can’t directly call the Arrays.fill() method. In the example we use for-loop to set each elements of the sub-array using the Arrays.fill() method.

The output of the code snippet above are:

Numbers: [-1, -1, -1, -1, -1]
Prices : [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0]
Words  : [, , , , ]
Multi  : [[9, 9, 9], [9, 9, 9], [9, 9, 9]]

How do I escape / display percent sign in printf statement?

You have a problem displaying the % sign when you want to print a number in percentage format using the printf() method. Because the % sign is use as a prefix of format specifiers, you need to escape it if you want to display the % sign as part of the output string.

To escape the percent sign (%) you need to write it twice, like %%. It will print out a single % sign as part of your printf() method output. Let see an example in the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.lang;

public class EscapePercentSignExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String format = "The current bank interest rate is %6.2f%%.%n";
        System.out.printf(format, 10f);
    }
}

In the code snippet above we use the following format %6.2f%%.%n which can be explained as:

  • %6.2f format the number (10f) as six characters in width, right justified, with two places after decimal point. The f conversion character means it accept a float value.
  • %% will escape the % sign and print it as part of the output.
  • %n will print out a new line character.

When you execute the code, it will print:

The current bank interest rate is  10.00%.

How to find the difference between two LocalDateTime objects?

In the previous post, How do I find the difference between two times?, we get the difference between two LocalTime objects in seconds measurement. In this example we will get the difference between two LocalDateTime objects and get the difference between these objects in years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;

public class LocalDateTimeDiff {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDateTime from = LocalDateTime.of(2015, Month.JANUARY, 10, 10, 0, 30);
        LocalDateTime to = LocalDateTime.now();

        LocalDateTime fromTemp = LocalDateTime.from(from);
        long years = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.YEARS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusYears(years);

        long months = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MONTHS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusMonths(months);

        long days = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.DAYS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusDays(days);

        long hours = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.HOURS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusHours(hours);

        long minutes = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MINUTES);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusMinutes(minutes);

        long seconds = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.SECONDS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusSeconds(seconds);

        long millis = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MILLIS);

        System.out.println("From = " + from);
        System.out.println("To   = " + to);
        System.out.printf("The difference is %s years, %s months, %s days, " +
                        "%s hours, %s minutes, %s seconds, %s millis",
                years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, millis);
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above when executed is:

From = 2015-01-10T10:00:30
To   = 2016-02-11T17:20:40.503
The difference is 1 years, 1 months, 1 days, 7 hours, 20 minutes, 10 seconds, 503 millis

How do I find the difference between two times?

The following code snippet show you how to find the difference between two time objects represented by LocalTime class. To get the difference between two LocalTime objects we can use the Duration.between() method. This method returns a Duration object, to get the difference in seconds we call the getSeconds() method.

Here a code snippet to demonstrate it.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.*;

public class TimeDifference {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalTime start = LocalTime.now();
        LocalTime end = LocalTime.of(16, 59, 55);
        Duration duration = Duration.between(start, end);

        System.out.printf("Seconds between %s and %s is: %s seconds.%n",
                start, end, duration.getSeconds());

        diffLocalDateTime();
        diffInstant();
    }

    /**
     * Difference between two LocalDateTime objects.
     */
    public static void diffLocalDateTime() {
        LocalDateTime dt1 = LocalDateTime.now();
        LocalDateTime dt2 = LocalDateTime.now(ZoneId.of("GMT+0"));
        Duration duration = Duration.between(dt1, dt2);
        System.out.printf("Duration = %s seconds.%n", duration.getSeconds());
    }

    /**
     * Difference between two Instant objects.
     */
    public static void diffInstant() {
        Instant instant1 = Instant.now();
        Instant instant2 = Instant.EPOCH;
        Duration duration = Duration.between(instant1, instant2);
        System.out.printf("Duration = %s seconds.%n", duration.getSeconds());
    }
}

Using the Duration.between() we can also get the difference between two LocalDateTime objects and two Instant object as seen in the diffLocalDateTime() method and diffInstant method in the code snippet above.

The result of the code snippet:

Seconds between 16:58:15.863 and 16:59:55 is: 99 seconds.
Duration = -28800 seconds.
Duration = -1455181096 seconds.

How do I parse negative number in parentheses?

In financial application negative numbers are often represented in parentheses. In this post we will learn how we can parse or convert the negative number in parentheses to produce the represented number value. To parse text / string to a number we can use the java.text.DecimalFormat class.

Beside number in parentheses, in this example we also parse negative number that use the minus sign with the currency symbol like $. Let’s jump to the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberParse {
    // Pattern for parsing negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        DecimalFormat df = new DecimalFormat(PATTERN1);

        String number1 = "(1000)";
        String number2 = "(1,500.99)";

        System.out.println("number1 = " + df.parse(number1));
        System.out.println("number2 = " + df.parse(number2));

        df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN2);

        String number3 = "-$1000";
        String number4 = "-$1,500.99";

        System.out.println("number3 = " + df.parse(number3));
        System.out.println("number4 = " + df.parse(number4));
    }
}

And here are the results of our code snippet above:

number1 = -1000
number2 = -1500.99
number3 = -1000
number4 = -1500.99

If you need to display or format negative numbers in parentheses you can take a look at the following example How do I display negative number in parentheses?.

How do I display negative number in parentheses?

The code snippet below show us how to display or format negative number in parentheses. We start by defining the number format, the pattern has two parts separated by a semicolon. In the snippet we use the #,##0.00;(#,##0.00) pattern. The pattern after the semicolon will be use to format negative number.

Next we create an instance of DecimalFormat by calling getInstance() method. We apply the the format pattern for the formatter object by calling the applyPattern() method of the DecimalFormat instance. To format the number we simply call the format() method and pass the number we are going to format for display or print out.

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberFormat {
    // Pattern for formatting negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DecimalFormat df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN1);

        // Format using parentheses
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(125));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-125));

        // Format using currency symbol and minus sign
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN2);
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(1000));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-1000));
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above is:

Positive: 125.00
Negative: (125.00)
Positive: $1,000.00
Negative: -$1,000.00

If you need to parse negative numbers in parentheses to produce the represented number you can see the following example How do I parse negative number in parentheses?.

How do I convert between old Date and Calendar object with the new Java 8 Date Time?

In this example we will learn how to convert the old java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar objects to the new Date Time introduced in Java 8. The first method in the code snippet below dateToNewDate() show conversion of java.util.Date while the calendarToNewDate() show the conversion of java.util.Calendar.

The java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar provide a toInstant() method to convert the objects to the new Date Time API class of the java.time.Instant. To convert the old date into the Java 8 LocalDate, LocalTime and LocalDateTime we first can create an instance of ZonedDateTime using the atZone() method of the Instant class.

ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = instant.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());

From an instance of ZonedDateTime class we can call the toLocalDate(), toLocalTime() and toLocalDateTime() to get instance of LocalDate, LocalTime and LocalDateTime.

To convert back from the new Java 8 date to the old java.util.Date we can use the Date.from() static factory method and passing and instance of java.time.Instant that we can obtains by calling the following code.

Instant instant1 = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant();
Date now1 = Date.from(instant1);

Here are the complete code snippet to convert java.util.Date to the new Java 8 Date Time.

private static void dateToNewDate() {
    Date now = new Date();
    Instant instant = now.toInstant();

    ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = instant.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());

    LocalDate date = zonedDateTime.toLocalDate();
    LocalTime time = zonedDateTime.toLocalTime();
    LocalDateTime dateTime = zonedDateTime.toLocalDateTime();

    Instant instant1 = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant();
    Date now1 = Date.from(instant1);

    System.out.println("java.util.Date          = " + now);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDate     = " + date);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalTime     = " + time);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDateTime = " + dateTime);
    System.out.println("java.util.Date          = " + now1);
    System.out.println();
}

The steps for converting from the java.util.Calendar to the new Java 8 date can be seen in the code snippet below. As with java.util.Date the Calendar class provide toInstant() method to convert the calendar to java.time.Instant object.

Using the LocalDateTime.ofInstant() method we can create a LocalDateTime object from the instant object. By having the LocalDateTime object we can then get an instance of LocalDate and LocalTime by calling the toLocalDate() and toLocalTime() method.

Finally to convert back to java.util.Calendar we can use the GregorianCalendar.from() static factory method which require an instance of ZonedDateTime to be passed as a parameter. To get an instance of ZonedDateTime we can call LocalDateTime.atZone() method. You can see the complete code in the code snippet below.

private static void calendarToNewDate() {
    Calendar now = Calendar.getInstance();

    LocalDateTime dateTime = LocalDateTime.ofInstant(now.toInstant(),
            ZoneId.systemDefault());

    LocalDate date = dateTime.toLocalDate();
    LocalTime time = dateTime.toLocalTime();

    ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
    Calendar now1 = GregorianCalendar.from(zonedDateTime);

    System.out.println("java.util.Calendar      = " + now);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDateTime = " + dateTime);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDate     = " + date);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalTime     = " + time);
    System.out.println("java.util.Calendar      = " + now1);
}

Below is the main Java class to run the code snippet. You must place the above methods inside this class to run the code snippet.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.*;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.GregorianCalendar;

public class LegacyDateCalendarToNewDateExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        dateToNewDate();
        calendarToNewDate();
    }
}

Here are the result of the code snippet above. The first group is conversion the java.util.Date to the new Date Time API. The second group is conversion from the java.util.Calendar to the new Date Time API.

java.util.Date          = Mon Feb 01 11:09:55 WITA 2016
java.time.LocalDate     = 2016-02-01
java.time.LocalTime     = 11:09:55.746
java.time.LocalDateTime = 2016-02-01T11:09:55.746
java.util.Date          = Mon Feb 01 11:09:55 WITA 2016

java.util.Calendar      = java.util.GregorianCalendar[time=1454296195871,areFieldsSet=true,areAllFieldsSet=true,lenient=true,zone=sun.util.calendar.ZoneInfo[id="Asia/Makassar",offset=28800000,dstSavings=0,useDaylight=false,transitions=5,lastRule=null],firstDayOfWeek=1,minimalDaysInFirstWeek=1,ERA=1,YEAR=2016,MONTH=1,WEEK_OF_YEAR=6,WEEK_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_YEAR=32,DAY_OF_WEEK=2,DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH=1,AM_PM=0,HOUR=11,HOUR_OF_DAY=11,MINUTE=9,SECOND=55,MILLISECOND=871,ZONE_OFFSET=28800000,DST_OFFSET=0]
java.time.LocalDateTime = 2016-02-01T11:09:55.871
java.time.LocalDate     = 2016-02-01
java.time.LocalTime     = 11:09:55.871
java.util.Calendar      = java.util.GregorianCalendar[time=1454296195871,areFieldsSet=true,areAllFieldsSet=true,lenient=true,zone=sun.util.calendar.ZoneInfo[id="Asia/Makassar",offset=28800000,dstSavings=0,useDaylight=false,transitions=5,lastRule=null],firstDayOfWeek=2,minimalDaysInFirstWeek=4,ERA=1,YEAR=2016,MONTH=1,WEEK_OF_YEAR=5,WEEK_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_YEAR=32,DAY_OF_WEEK=2,DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH=1,AM_PM=0,HOUR=11,HOUR_OF_DAY=11,MINUTE=9,SECOND=55,MILLISECOND=871,ZONE_OFFSET=28800000,DST_OFFSET=0]

How do I get the date of the first particular day after a specific date?

In this example we will learn how to get the date of the first particular day that fall after a specific date. In the code snippet below we will find the first Friday that fall after the new year of 2016. First let’s create a LocalDate object that represent the new year of 2016. We can use LocalDate.of() factory method to create the date object.

To get the first occurrence of a specific day-of-week from a date we create a TemporalAdjuster using the TemporalAdjusters.next() method and pass the day-of-week, in this case we pass DayOfWeek.FRIDAY.

After that we create another LocalDate that will hold the next Friday date. The get the date for the next Friday we call newYear.with() method and pass the TemporalAdjuster that we have created earlier.

Now, let’s try the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjuster;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters;

public class GetFirstDayAfterDate {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //
        // Obtains the current date.
        //
        LocalDate newYear = LocalDate.of(2016, Month.JANUARY, 1);
        System.out.println("New Year = " + newYear);

        //
        // Gets the next Friday.
        //
        TemporalAdjuster nextFriday = TemporalAdjusters.next(DayOfWeek.FRIDAY);
        LocalDate nextFridayDate = newYear.with(nextFriday);
        System.out.printf("The first Friday after the new year of %s is %s%n", 
                newYear, nextFriday);
    }
}

The code snippet will print out the following result:

New Year = 2016-01-01
The first Friday after the new year of 2016-01-01 is 2016-01-08

How do I add or subtract date in Java 8?

The new Java 8 java.time.LocalDate class provide a plus() and minus() methods to add or subtract an amount of period to or from the LocalDate object.

The period is represented using the java.time.Period class. To create an instance of Period we can use the of(), ofDays(), ofWeeks(), ofMonths() and ofYears() methods.

Let’s see an example using the plus() and minus() method of LocalDate class to add and subtract in the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Period;

public class DateAddSubtract {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create periods in days, weeks, months and years.
        Period p1 = Period.ofDays(7);
        Period p2 = Period.ofWeeks(2);
        Period p3 = Period.ofMonths(1);
        Period p4 = Period.ofYears(1);
        Period p5 = Period.of(1, 1, 7);

        // Obtains current date and add some period to the current date using 
        // the plus() method.
        LocalDate now = LocalDate.now();
        LocalDate date1 = now.plus(p1);
        LocalDate date2 = now.plus(p2);
        LocalDate date3 = now.plus(p3);
        LocalDate date4 = now.plus(p4);
        LocalDate date5 = now.plus(p5);

        // Print out the result of adding some period to the current date.
        System.out.printf("Add some period to the date: %s%n", now);
        System.out.printf("Plus %7s = %s%n", p1, date1);
        System.out.printf("Plus %7s = %s%n", p2, date2);
        System.out.printf("Plus %7s = %s%n", p3, date3);
        System.out.printf("Plus %7s = %s%n", p4, date4);
        System.out.printf("Plus %7s = %s%n%n", p5, date5);

        // Subtract some period from the date using the minus() method.
        System.out.printf("Subtract some period from the date: %s%n", now);
        System.out.printf("Minus %7s = %s%n", p1, now.minus(p1));
        System.out.printf("Minus %7s = %s%n", p2, now.minus(p2));
        System.out.printf("Minus %7s = %s%n", p3, now.minus(p3));
        System.out.printf("Minus %7s = %s%n", p4, now.minus(p4));
        System.out.printf("Minus %7s = %s%n%n", p5, now.minus(p5));
    }
}

And here are the result of the code snippet above:

Add some period to the date: 2016-01-29
Plus     P7D = 2016-02-05
Plus    P14D = 2016-02-12
Plus     P1M = 2016-02-29
Plus     P1Y = 2017-01-29
Plus P1Y1M7D = 2017-03-07

Subtract some period from the date: 2016-01-29
Minus     P7D = 2016-01-22
Minus    P14D = 2016-01-15
Minus     P1M = 2015-12-29
Minus     P1Y = 2015-01-29
Minus P1Y1M7D = 2014-12-22

How do I calculate difference between two dates?

In this example you’ll learn how to use the java.time.Period class (from Java 8) to calculate difference between two dates. Using Period.between() method will give us difference between two dates in years, months and days period.

Besides using the Period class we also use the ChronoUnit enum to calculate difference between two dates. We use the ChronoUnit.YEARS, ChronoUnit.MONTHS and ChronoUnit.DAYS and call the between() method to get the difference between two dates in years, months and days.

Let’s see an example below.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.Period;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;

public class DateDifference {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDate birthDate = LocalDate.of(1995, Month.AUGUST, 17);
        LocalDate now = LocalDate.now();

        // Obtains a period consisting of the number of years, months and days
        // between two dates.
        Period age = Period.between(birthDate, now);
        System.out.printf("You are now %d years, %d months and %d days old.%n",
                age.getYears(), age.getMonths(), age.getDays());

        // Using ChronoUnit to calculate difference in years, months and days
        // between two dates.
        long years = ChronoUnit.YEARS.between(birthDate, now);
        long months = ChronoUnit.MONTHS.between(birthDate, now);
        long days = ChronoUnit.DAYS.between(birthDate, now);

        System.out.println("Diff in years  = " + years);
        System.out.println("Diff in months = " + months);
        System.out.println("Diff in days   = " + days);
    }
}

The result of our code snippet above are:

You are now 20 years, 5 months and 5 days old.
Diff in years  = 20
Diff in months = 245
Diff in days   = 7463