How do I display negative number in parentheses?

The code snippet below show us how to display or format negative number in parentheses. We start by defining the number format, the pattern has two parts separated by a semicolon. In the snippet we use the #,##0.00;(#,##0.00) pattern. The pattern after the semicolon will be used to format negative number.

Next we create an instance of DecimalFormat by calling getInstance() method. We apply the format pattern for the formatter object by calling the applyPattern() method of the DecimalFormat instance. To format the number we simply call the format() method and pass the number we are going to format for display or print out.

package org.kodejava.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberFormat {
    // Pattern for formatting negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DecimalFormat df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();

        // Format using parentheses
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(125));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-125));

        // Format using currency symbol and minus sign
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(1000));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-1000));

The result of the code snippet above is:

Positive: 125.00
Negative: (125.00)
Positive: $1,000.00
Negative: -$1,000.00

If you need to parse negative numbers in parentheses to produce the represented number you can see the following example How do I parse negative number in parentheses?.

How do I implement equals() and hashCode() method using java.util.Objects?

This example will show you how to implement the equals() and hashCode() object using java.util.Objects class. The Objects class provides a set of utility methods to work with object such as comparing two objects for equality and calculating the hashcode. Other methods include object null check methods, object to string method, etc.

To demonstrate equals() and hash() methods we’ll create a simple POJO called Student with a couple of properties such as id, name and dateOfBirth.


import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.util.Objects;

public class Student {
    private Long id;
    private String name;
    private LocalDate dateOfBirth;

    public Student() {

    public Student(Long id, String name, LocalDate dateOfBirth) { = id; = name;
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;

    public Long getId() {
        return id;

    public void setId(Long id) { = id;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setName(String name) { = name;

    public LocalDate getDateOfBirth() {
        return dateOfBirth;

    public void setDateOfBirth(LocalDate dateOfBirth) {
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;

    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (this == o) return true;
        if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;

        Student that = (Student) o;
        return Objects.equals(,
                && Objects.equals(,
                && Objects.equals(this.dateOfBirth, that.dateOfBirth);

    public int hashCode() {
        return Objects.hash(id, name, dateOfBirth);

Using the Objects.equals() and Objects.hash() methods in the Student class makes the implementation of the equals() method and the hashCode() method concise, easy to read and to understand. The Objects utility class will operate in a null-safe way which means that it will check for a null fields of the object.

The code snippet below will demonstrate the use of Student class. Which will compare objects using the equals() method and print out the calculated hashcode of the object.

package org.kodejava.util;


import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;

public class EqualsHashCodeExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Student student1 = new Student(1L, "Alice", LocalDate.of(1990, Month.APRIL, 1));
        Student student2 = new Student(1L, "Alice", LocalDate.of(1990, Month.APRIL, 1));
        Student student3 = new Student(2L, "Bob", LocalDate.of(1992, Month.DECEMBER, 21));

        System.out.println("student1.equals(student2) = " + student1.equals(student2));
        System.out.println("student1.equals(student3) = " + student1.equals(student3));
        System.out.println("student1.hashCode() = " + student1.hashCode());
        System.out.println("student2.hashCode() = " + student2.hashCode());
        System.out.println("student3.hashCode() = " + student3.hashCode());

And here are the result of the code snippet above:

student1.equals(student2) = true
student1.equals(student3) = false
student1.hashCode() = 1967967937
student2.hashCode() = 1967967937
student3.hashCode() = 6188033

Another approach for implementing the equals() and hashCode() method is using the Apache Commons Lang library. And example of it can be seen here: How to implement the hashCode and equals method using Apache Commons?.

How can I insert an element in array at a given position?

As we know an array in Java is a fixed-size object, once it created its size cannot be changed. So if you want to have a resizable array-like object where you can insert an element at a given position you can use a java.util.List object type instead.

This example will show you how you can achieve array insert using the java.util.List and java.util.ArrayList object. Let see the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.util;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class ArrayInsert {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Creates an array of integer value and prints the original values.
        Integer[] numbers = new Integer[]{1, 1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 21};
        System.out.println("Original numbers: " +

        // Creates an ArrayList object and initialize its values with the entire
        // content of numbers array. We use the add(index, element) method to add
        // element = 5 at index = 4.
        List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<>(Arrays.asList(numbers));
        list.add(4, 5);

        // Converts back the list into array object and prints the new values.
        numbers = list.toArray(new Integer[0]);
        System.out.println("After insert    : " + Arrays.toString(numbers));

In the code snippet above the original array of Integer numbers will be converted into a List, in this case we use an ArrayList, we initialized the ArrayList by passing all elements of the array into the list constructor. The Arrays.asList() can be used to convert an array into a collection type object.

Next we insert a new element into the List using the add(int index, E element) method. Where index is the insert / add position and element is the element to be inserted. After the new element inserted we convert the List back to the original array.

Below is the result of the code snippet above:

Original numbers: [1, 1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 21]
After insert    : [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21]

How do I read last n characters from a file?

In the following post you will learn how to read last n characters from a file. The JDK 7 introduces a new SeekableByteChannel interface which allows its implementation to change the position and the size of the byte channel. One of its implementation is the FileChannel class (java.nio.channels.FileChannel).

The FileChannel class make it possible to get hold the current position of where we are going to read from or write to a file. The code snippet below shows you how you can read the last 1000 characters from a log file.


import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.StandardOpenOption;

public class FileReadLastNCharacters {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Defines the path to the log file and creates a ByteBuffer.
        Path logPath = Paths.get("C:/tools/apache-tomcat-10.0.11/logs/catalina.out");
        ByteBuffer buffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);

        try {
            // Creates FileChannel and open the file channel for read access.
            FileChannel channel =, StandardOpenOption.READ);

            // Read a sequence of bytes from the channel into the buffer starting
            // at given file position, which is the channel size - 1000. Because
            // we are going to read the last 1000 characters from the file.
  , channel.size() - 1000);
            System.out.println("Characters = " + new String(buffer.array()));
        } catch (IOException e) {

The steps in the code snippet above are:

  • Get the path to the log file.
  • Create a ByteBuffer, a buffer where the read bytes to be transferred.
  • Using the method we open a file to be read and return a FileChannel object.
  • The read() method of the FileChannel reads a sequence of bytes from the channel and transfer them to the given buffer starting and the position defined by channel.size() - 1000. This method returns the number of bytes read, possible zero, or -1 if the given position is greater than or equal to the file’s current size.
  • Print out the buffered string.

Java SE Installation Tutorial

Summary: This tutorial is about Java Development Kit (JDK) Standard Edition installation guide. After reading and executing this tutorial you will be able to install the JDK and setting the basic configuration for running the Java compiler from the command line. You will also learn how to create, compile and run a simple Hello World program written in Java.

Download The JDK

When this tutorial is written, the latest JDK is version 7 Update 45. To download the Java SE Development Kit 7 (JDK 7) click to following URL: Java SE Downloads. Make sure you choose the Windows version and download the JDK and not the JRE. The JDK installer will have the JRE included.

Installing The JDK

After downloading you will have a file called jdk-7u45-windows-i586.exe. Executing this file, either by double-click the file or running it from the command prompt, will begin the installation process. You will see the following screens during the installation process:

Installation Wizard Welcome Screen

Installation Wizard Welcome Screen

To continue the installation click the Next button shown in the screen above. This action will bring you to the feature’s selection screen in the installation wizard shown below.

Features Selection

Features Selection

In the feature’s selection screen above you will be able to choose which features to install. For the simplicity of this tutorial we will choose to install the entire features. We will also use the default installation path. In Windows operating system the default path is C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jdk1.7.0_45. Click the Next button to continue to the next step.

Installation Progress

Installation Progress

The screen above shows the progress status of the JDK installation. Depending on your computer speed this process may take a couple of minutes to finish. Wait for the next screen to show up.

JRE Installation Screen

JRE Installation Screen

As stated above that the JRE is included within the JDK installer, the screen above show you the JRE installation wizard. We will use the default path as shown above C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7. Click the Next button to continue to the next step.

JRE Installation Progress

JRE Installation Progress

The screen above shows the status of the JRE installation. Depending on your computer speed this process may take some other minutes to complete. When the JRE installation complete you will see the next screen.

JDK Installation Completed

JDK Installation Completed

Seeing the screen above means that your JDK installation is completed. Click the Finish button to exit the installation Wizard.

Configuring The JDK

Now you have the JDK installed on your system. Configuring the JDK so that you can run the javac and java commands from the command prompt is another important steps. A lot of beginners faced with a problem that the javac command is not recognized because they did not configure the path correctly. To validate your installation type the javac command in the command prompt. At first, you will see the following screen as the command output.

javac command is not recognized

javac command is not recognized

To make the javac command run properly you need to update the PATH environment variable to include the Java binary installation path. The following steps will show you how to configure the PATH environment variable.

  • Open your Windows Explorer, you can use the Windows + E shortcut.
  • Right click on Computer icon and choose the Properties menu.
  • Click Advanced system setting from the Task list.
  • In the System Properties window choose the Advanced tab.
  • Click the Environment Variables button.
  • In the Environment Variables windows you will see two sections. User variables and System variables.
  • Find the Path variable and click the Edit button.
  • In the Edit User Variable screen, update the current variable value by adding the path to JDK bin folder, in our case the path will be C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\bin;. You should add this information at the beginning at the beginning to make sure it will be picked first.
  • Press the OK button to update the User Variable.
  • Press the OK button to finish the Environment Variables setting.
  • Press the OK button on the System Properties window to close it.

Now you can open a new command prompt window and type the javac command. You will see that the javac command is now run as expected. You can type javac -version to check the version of your JDK.

Java Command Recognized

Java Command Recognized

Creating The

Now you have the JDK installed and configured properly. Let’s now create our first Java program, the famous Hello World program. Let’s begin.

  • Open a command prompt window.
  • Create a directory C:\HelloWorld\src.
  • Go to the src directory and create another directory call program.
  • Go to the program directory.
  • Create the source file by typing notepad.exe
  • The Notepad program will show a dialog saying that the file is not found.
  • Press the Yes button for creating the file.
  • Type the following code in the Notepad editor.
package program;

public class HelloWorld {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
       System.out.println("Hello World");
  • Click the Save menu to save your program.
  • Click the Exit menu to exit from the Notepad program.
  • Type the dir command, and you will see that you have created a file called

Compiling Java Source File

Up to this step you have created your first Java program. Before running the program you need to compile it. The compilation process compiles your Java source file into something called the Java bytecode. The bytecode is an intermediate language that makes the Java program portable across different platform.

To compile the program do the following step:

  • Go to the C:\HelloWorld\src\program directory.
  • Type javac to compile the source code.
  • A successful compilation will produce a HelloWorld.class file. This class file is your binary HelloWorld program, and it is ready to be executed.
Compiling Hello World

Compiling Hello World

Running the Program

Now you are in the final step of the tutorial. Running the HelloWorld program. Here are the final step you need to run:

  • Go to the C:\HelloWorld\src directory.
  • Type java program.HelloWorld without the .class extension to run the program.
  • You will see that the Hello World string printed on the screen.
Running Hello World

Running Hello World

That’s all for now, see you on another tutorial.

How do I create a generic Map object?

In this example of Java Generics you will see how to create a generic Map object. Creating a generic Map means that you can define the type of the key and the type of the value of object stored in the Map. The declaration and the instantiation of a generic Map is only different to other type of collection such as List and Set is that we to define two types. One type for the key and the other type for the value.

The syntax for creating a generic Map is as follows:

Map<K, V> map = new Map<K, V>();

Where K is the type of map key and V is the type of the value stored in the map. If you want a map to hold a value of reference to String object and using an Integer as the key, you will write the declaration and instantiation like the snippet below.

Map <Integer, String> map = new HashMap<Integer, String>();

To make it simpler, you can use the diamond operator too.

Map <Integer, String> map = new HashMap<>();

When you want to add some elements to the map you can use the same put() method. But you don’t have to worry that you put a wrong type of object into the map. Because the Java compiler will check it to see if you are storing a correct type. Generic will catch the bug that should not happen at runtime because the code is already validated at compile time.

Map <Integer, String> map = new HashMap<>();
map.put(1, "A");
map.put(2, "B");
map.put(3, "C");

//map.put("4", new Date()); // Compile time error!  

String a = map.get(1);
String b = map.get(2);
String c = map.get(3);

The get() method will return a value from the map that correspond with the given key. Because the map know that it store values of string, it will return a string. So you don’t need to cast the return value from the map’s get() method. You might wonder why we can put keys like 1, 2, 3. Doesn’t it supposed to be type of Integer? If you remember the auto boxing feature then you’ll understand this. Behind the screen Java will convert the primitive int to Integer.

Now, after we know how to add elements and read it back from the map. Let iterate the contents of the map. A map will have two collections that you can iterate, the keys and the values. The code snippet below will demonstrate it for you. The first snippet show you how the iterate the map using the key collections while the second iterates the values of the map.

Iterate key collections.

Iterator keyIterator = map.keySet().iterator();
while (keyIterator.hasNext()) {
    Integer key =;
    String value = map.get(key);
    System.out.println("key = " + key + "; value = " + value);

When iterating a map using the key collection you will get the key set of the map and check the hasNext() to see if it has next key. After that you can get the key using the next() method. To get the value you call the get() method and pass the key as the argument.

Iterates value collections.

Iterator valueIterator = map.values().iterator();
while(valueIterator.hasNext()) {
    System.out.println("value = " +;

If you want to iterate the value and ignoring the keys you can get the value collections from the map. To validate if it still holds more entries you call the hasNext() method. To obtain the value simply call the next() method from the iterator.

Notice that when using generic you don’t need to do any casting when working with generic map. Everything is added to map and read from the map is according the type of the key and the value of the map. Beside using the Iterator you can also use the for-each loop to iterate the map. Here are the version of the code above written using the for-each loop.

for (Integer key : map.keySet()) {
    String value = map.get(key);
    System.out.println("key = " + key + "; value = " + value);

for (String s : map.values()) {
    System.out.println("value = " + s);

You can choose either way that match your coding style. Both method of iterating the map object will produce the same result.

How do I create a generic Set?

In another post of Java Generics you have seen how to create a generic collection using List in this example you will learn how to make a generic Set. Making a Set generic means that we want it to only hold objects of the defined type. We can declare and instantiate a generic Set like the following code.

Set<String> colors = new HashSet<>();

We use the angle brackets to define the type. We need also to define the type in the instantiation part, but using the diamond operator remove the duplicate and Java will infer the type itself. This declaration and instantiation will give you a Set object that holds a reference to String objects. If you tried to ask it to hold other type of object such as Date or Integer you will get a compiled time error.

Set<String> colors = new HashSet<>();

//colors.add(new Date()); // Compile time error!

The code for adding items to a set is look the same with the old way we code. But again, one thing you will get here for free is that the compiler will check to see if you add the correct type to the Set. If we remove the remark on the last line from the snippet above we will get a compiled time error. Because we are trying to store a Date into a Set of type String.

Now, let see how we can iterate the contents of the Set. First we’ll do it using the Iterator. And here is the code snippet.

Iterator iterator = colors.iterator();
while (iterator.hasNext()) {

When using a generic Set it will know that the will return a type of String so that you don’t have use the cast operator. Which of course will make you code looks cleaner and more readable. We can also using the for-each loop when iterating the Set as can be seen in the following example.

for (String color : colors) {

How do I use for-each to iterate generic collections?

In this example you will learn you to iterate a generic collection using the for-each loop. There was actually no for-each keyword or statement in Java. It just a special syntax of the for loop. The structure or syntax of the for-each loop is as follows.

for (type var : collections) {

This form of for loop is always read as foreach and the colon (:) character is read as “in”. Given that definition, if the type is a String you will read the syntax above as “foreach String var in collections”. The var in the statement above will be given each value from the collections during the iteration process.

Let’s compare two codes, the first one that use a generic and another code that does not use a generic so we can see the difference from the iteration perspective when working with a collection.

package org.kodejava.generics;


import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class ForEachGeneric {

    public void loopWithoutGeneric() {
        List customers = new ArrayList();
        customers.add(new Customer());
        customers.add(new Customer());
        customers.add(new Customer());

        for (int i = 0; i < customers.size(); i++) {
            Customer customer = (Customer) customers.get(i);

    public void loopWithGeneric() {
        List<Customer> customers = new ArrayList<>();
        customers.add(new Customer());
        customers.add(new Customer());
        customers.add(new Customer());

        for (Customer customer : customers) {

What you see from the code snippet above is how much more clean our code is when we are using the generic version of the collection. In the first method, the loopWithoutGeneric we have to manually cast the object back to the Customer type. But in the second method, the loopWithGeneric method, no cast is needed as the collection will return the same type as what the collection was declared to hold.

How do I create a generic collections?

In this example you will learn how to create a generic collections. Using a generic collections you can define the type of object stored in the collections. Most of the time when you are working with a collection you will store the same kind of object in it. So it is safer to work if you know what to store in the collection and what to expect when try to read some data from it without worried of creating a runtime error in your code because you place a wrong object in the collection.

Using the generic type mechanism introduced since JDK 5.0 you can declare a collections with reference to the given type. You define the type inside an angle brackets after the variable declaration and after the variable instantiation. In JDK 7.0 you can simplify this using the diamond operator. For example is you want to create a collection that stored Customer objects the declaration and instantiation code will look like the snippet below.

List<Customer> customers = new ArrayList<Customer>();

In JDK 7.0 you can write it without repeating the type on the instantiation part.

List<Customer> customers = new ArrayList<>();

Creating a collection object in this way will tell to compiler that you want to allow only to add objects of type Customer to be the content of the collection. It means the add method will take Customer as the argument and the get method will return Customer object. If you are trying to add for example Product object or Seller object the compiler will give you a compiled time error.

Let’s see a complete code snippet for this example:

package org.kodejava.generics;


import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class GenericCollection {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        List<Customer> customers = new ArrayList<>();
        customers.add(new Customer());
        customers.add(new Customer());

        //customers.add(new Product()); // Compile time error!

        // No cast operator required.
        Customer customer = customers.get(0);

        for (Customer cust : customers) {

Another thing that you can see from the code above is that you don’t have to use cast operator anymore when obtaining data from the collection. On JDK prior to 5.0 version you will typically have to use the instanceof operator to see what type of object returned by the collection, and you have to cast it. You don’t have to do this anymore when using generic. You can also see how your code become simpler and more readable when you iterate through the contents of the collection object.

How do I use Generics in Java programming?

In this post we are going to talk about one of Java programming language feature called as generics. Generics is a feature introduced in JDK 5.0. The generics feature allow you to abstract over types. What does it mean? It means that you can create a class or method that can work for a type assigned to it. You’ll see a lot of use of generics when you are working with Java Collections. But of course generics can be used for doing other things in you program.

To illustrate this feature let us begin by creating a code when the generics are not yet available in Java to see what problem it is trying to solve.

List data = new ArrayList();
data.add("John Doe");
String name = (String) data.get(0);

Here are the things we can see from the code above. First we create an ArrayList and call it data. This variable actually can hold any Java objects in it. On the second line we add a string to this list. And finally on the third line we get the data back from the list. One thing you see here is that you need to cast the object read out from the list. Because the list doesn’t know what type to return other than java.lang.Object.

If you look to the definition of the List’s add() and get() method prior to JDK 5.0 you’ll see that the add() method will accept Object as argument and the get() method also returns Object.

Now, let say your friend try to use your class, and he tries to add another object the list. He adds the following lines.

data.add(new Date());
String name = (String) data.get(0);

This code will actually compile just fine. The add() method will work because Date extends Object. And the get() method will also compile without any error. But when we execute the program we will get a runtime error saying that it cannot cast a Date object into type of String.

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException: java.util.Date cannot be cast to java.lang.String

So how do you protect your friend from making this mistake? You can use generics. You can tell what the list should store by defining the type for the list. This way you will get a compiled time check to make sure that you are adding the correct data to the list. So, your code will look like the following.

List<String> data = new ArrayList<String>();
data.add("John Doe");
String name = data.get(0);

In this generic version of the code snippet you see that now we declare the list to store an object of type String. If you tried to add a Date into the list you’ll get a compiled time error. Your IDE will mark the line as error. The other benefit is that you don’t have to do the cast anymore. Generics reduce the clutters in your code by removing the unwanted cast operator from your code.

Actually if you are working on the JDK 7, you can simplify the variable declaration using diamond operator. So you can write it like.

List<String> data = new ArrayList<>();

I hope this will give you the basic understanding of generics and how to use it in your day-to-day working with your Java projects.