How do I convert raw IP address to String?

This example show you how to convert a raw IP address, an array of byte, returned by InetAddress.getAddress() method call to its string representation.

package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.UnknownHostException;

public class RawIPToString {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InetAddress address = null;

        byte[] ip = new byte[0];
        try {
            address = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            ip = address.getAddress();
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        String ipAddress = RawIPToString.getIpAddress(ip);
        System.out.println("IP Address = " + ipAddress);

        try {
            address = InetAddress.getByName("google.com");
            ip = address.getAddress();
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        ipAddress = RawIPToString.getIpAddress(ip);
        System.out.println("IP Address = " + ipAddress);
    }

    /**
     * Convert raw IP address to string.
     *
     * @param rawBytes raw IP address.
     * @return a string representation of the raw ip address.
     */
    public static String getIpAddress(byte[] rawBytes) {
        int i = 4;
        String ipAddress = "";
        for (byte raw : rawBytes)
        {
            ipAddress += (raw & 0xFF);
            if (--i > 0)
            {
                ipAddress += ".";
            }
        }

        return ipAddress;
    }
}

This example will print:

IP Address = 182.0.135.67
IP Address = 209.85.132.104

How do I create port scanner program?

In this example you’ll see how to create a simple port scanner program to check the open ports for the specified host name.

package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.Socket;

public class PortScanner {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String host = "localhost";
        InetAddress inetAddress = InetAddress.getByName(host);

        String hostName = inetAddress.getHostName();
        for (int port = 0; port <= 65535; port++) {
            try {
                Socket socket = new Socket(hostName, port);
                String text = hostName + " is listening on port " + port;
                System.out.println(text);
                socket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                String s = hostName + " is not listening on port " + port;
                System.out.println(s);
            }
        }
    }
}

How do I get MAC address of a host?

Previously for obtaining a MAC address we need to use a native code as a solution. In JDK 1.6 a new method is added in the java.net.NetworkInterface class, this method is getHardwareAddress().

package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.NetworkInterface;
import java.net.SocketException;
import java.net.UnknownHostException;

public class MacAddress {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            //InetAddress address = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            InetAddress address = InetAddress.getByName("192.168.46.53");

            /*
             * Get NetworkInterface for the current host and then read
             * the hardware address.
             */
            NetworkInterface ni = 
                    NetworkInterface.getByInetAddress(address);
            if (ni != null) {
                byte[] mac = ni.getHardwareAddress();
                if (mac != null) {
                    /*
                     * Extract each array of mac address and convert it 
                     * to hexa with the following format 
                     * 08-00-27-DC-4A-9E.
                     */
                    for (int i = 0; i < mac.length; i++) {
                        System.out.format("%02X%s",
                                mac[i], (i < mac.length - 1) ? "-" : "");
                    }
                } else {
                    System.out.println("Address doesn't exist or is not " +
                            "accessible.");
                }
            } else {
                System.out.println("Network Interface for the specified " +
                        "address is not found.");
            }
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (SocketException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

How do I create a client-server socket communication?

In this example you’ll see how to create a client-server socket communication. The example below consist of two main classes, the ServerSocketExample and the ClientSocketExample. The server application listen to port 7777 at the localhost. When we send a message from the client application the server receive the message and send a reply to the client application.

The communication in this example using the TCP socket, it means that there is a fixed connection line between the client application and the server application.

package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.lang.ClassNotFoundException;
import java.lang.Runnable;
import java.lang.Thread;
import java.net.ServerSocket;
import java.net.Socket;

public class ServerSocketExample {
    private ServerSocket server;
    private int port = 7777;

    public ServerSocketExample() {
        try {
            server = new ServerSocket(port);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ServerSocketExample example = new ServerSocketExample();
        example.handleConnection();
    }

    public void handleConnection() {
        System.out.println("Waiting for client message...");

        //
        // The server do a loop here to accept all connection initiated by the
        // client application.
        //
        while (true) {
            try {
                Socket socket = server.accept();
                new ConnectionHandler(socket);
            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
}

class ConnectionHandler implements Runnable {
    private Socket socket;

    public ConnectionHandler(Socket socket) {
        this.socket = socket;

        Thread t = new Thread(this);
        t.start();
    }

    public void run() {
        try
        {
            //
            // Read a message sent by client application
            //
            ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(socket.getInputStream());
            String message = (String) ois.readObject();
            System.out.println("Message Received: " + message);

            //
            // Send a response information to the client application
            //
            ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(socket.getOutputStream());
            oos.writeObject("Hi...");

            ois.close();
            oos.close();
            socket.close();

            System.out.println("Waiting for client message...");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}
package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.lang.ClassNotFoundException;
import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.Socket;
import java.net.UnknownHostException;

public class ClientSocketExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            //
            // Create a connection to the server socket on the server application
            //
            InetAddress host = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            Socket socket = new Socket(host.getHostName(), 7777);

            //
            // Send a message to the client application
            //
            ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(socket.getOutputStream());
            oos.writeObject("Hello There...");

            //
            // Read and display the response message sent by server application
            //
            ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(socket.getInputStream());
            String message = (String) ois.readObject();
            System.out.println("Message: " + message);

            ois.close();
            oos.close();
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

To test the application you need to start the server application. Each time you run the client application it will send a message “Hello There…” and in turns the server reply with a message “Hi…”.

How do I get response header from HTTP request?

package org.kodejava.example.net;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

public class HttpResponseHeaderDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            URL url = new URL("http://www.kodejava.org/index.html");
            URLConnection connection = url.openConnection();

            Map responseMap = connection.getHeaderFields();
            for (Iterator iterator = responseMap.keySet().iterator(); iterator.hasNext();) {
                String key = (String) iterator.next();
                System.out.print(key + " = ");

                List values = (List) responseMap.get(key);
                for (int i = 0; i < values.size(); i++) {
                    Object o = values.get(i);
                    System.out.print(o + ", ");
                }
                System.out.println("");
            }
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}