How do I modified the value of LocalDate and LocalTime object?

The easiest way to modify the value of a LocalDate, LocalTime or LocalDateTime object is to use the with() method of the corresponding object. These methods will return a modified version of the object, it doesn’t change the attribute of the original object. All the methods, like withYear(), withDayOfMonth() or the with(ChronoField) of the LocalDate object will return a new object with the modified attribute.

With the LocalTime object you can use the withHour(), withMinute(), withSecond() or the more generic with(ChronoField) method to modified the attribute of a LocalTime object. You can also modified a LocalDateTime object using these with() method. Let’s see the example in the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.LocalTime;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;

public class ManipulatingDateTime {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDate date1 = LocalDate.of(2020, 4, 21);
        System.out.println("date1 = " + date1);
        LocalDate date2 = date1.withYear(2019);
        System.out.println("date2 = " + date2);
        LocalDate date3 = date2.withDayOfMonth(10);
        System.out.println("date3 = " + date3);
        LocalDate date4 = date3.with(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 12);
        System.out.println("date4 = " + date4);

        LocalTime time1 = LocalTime.of(1, 5, 10);
        System.out.println("time1 = " + time1);
        LocalTime time2 = time1.withHour(6);
        System.out.println("time2 = " + time2);
        LocalTime time3 = time2.withMinute(45);
        System.out.println("time3 = " + time3);
        LocalTime time4 = time3.with(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 25);
        System.out.println("time4 = " + time4);

        LocalDate now1 =;
        System.out.println("now1 = " + now1);
        LocalDate now2 = now1.plusWeeks(1);
        System.out.println("now2 = " + now2);
        LocalDate now3 = now2.minusMonths(2);
        System.out.println("now3 = " + now3);
        LocalDate now4 =, ChronoUnit.DAYS);
        System.out.println("now4 = " + now4);

The output of this code snippet are:

date1 = 2020-04-21
date2 = 2019-04-21
date3 = 2019-04-10
date4 = 2019-12-10
time1 = 01:05:10
time2 = 06:05:10
time3 = 06:45:10
time4 = 06:45:25
now1 = 2020-04-21
now2 = 2020-04-28
now3 = 2020-02-28
now4 = 2020-03-14

These with() methods is the counterpart of the get() methods. Where the get() methods will give you the value of the corresponding LocalDate or LocalTime attribute, the with() method will change the attribute value and return a new object. It didn’t call set because the object is immutable, which means it value cannot be changed.

While with the with() method you can change the value of date time attribute in an absolute way using the plus() or minus() method can help you change the date and time attribute in a relative way. The plus() and minus() method allows you to move a Temporal back or forward a give amount of time, defined by a number plus a TemporalUnit, in this case we use the ChronoUnit enumeration which implements this interface.

How do I created tab delimited data file in Java?

The following code snippet show you how to create a tab delimited data file in Java. The tab character is represented using the \t sequence of characters, a backslash (\) character followed by the t letter. In the code below we start by defining some data that we are going to write to the file.

We create a PrintWriter object, passes a BufferedWritter created using the Files.newBufferedWriter() method. The countries.dat is the file name where the data will be written. Because we are using the try-with-resources the PrintWriter and the related object will be closed automatically when the file operation finishes.


import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class TabDelimitedDataFile {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        List<String[]> data = new ArrayList<>();
        data.add(new String[]{"Afghanistan", "AF", "AFG", "004", "Asia"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Åland Islands", "AX", "ALA", "248", "Europe"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Albania", "AL", "ALB", "008", "Europe"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Algeria", "DZ", "DZA", "012", "Africa"});
        data.add(new String[]{"American Samoa", "AS", "ASM", "016", "Polynesia"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Andorra", "AD", "AND", "020", "South Europe"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Angola", "AO", "AGO", "024", "Africa"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Anguilla", "AI", "AIA", "660", "Americas"});
        data.add(new String[]{"Antarctica", "AQ", "ATA", "010", ""});
        data.add(new String[]{"Argentina", "AR", "ARG", "032", "Americas"});

        try (PrintWriter writer = new PrintWriter(
            Files.newBufferedWriter(Paths.get("countries.dat")))) {
            for (String[] row : data) {
                    row[0], row[1], row[2], row[3], row[4]);

The output of the code snippet above are:

         Afghanistan     AF     AFG     004     Asia
       Åland Islands     AX     ALA     248     Europe
             Albania     AL     ALB     008     Europe
             Algeria     DZ     DZA     012     Africa
      American Samoa     AS     ASM     016     Polynesia
             Andorra     AD     AND     020     South Europe
              Angola     AO     AGO     024     Africa
            Anguilla     AI     AIA     660     Americas
          Antarctica     AQ     ATA     010     
           Argentina     AR     ARG     032     Americas

How do I use TemporalField to access date time value?

The LocalDate and LocalTime are probably the first two classes from the Java 8 Date and Time API that you will work with. An instance of the LocalDate object is an immutable object representing a date without the time of the day and on the other way around the LocalTime object is an immutable object representing a time without the date information.

The LocalDate object have methods to get information related to date such as getYear(), getMonth(), getDayOfMonth(). While the LocalTime object have methods to get information related to time such as getHour(), getMinute(), getSecond(). Beside using those methods we can also access the value of these object using the TemporalField interface. We can pass a TemporalField to the get() method of LocalDate and LocalTime objects. TemporalField is an interface, one of its implementation that we can use to get the value is the ChronoField enumerations.

Let’s see some examples in the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.LocalTime;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;

public class DateTimeValueTemporalField {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDate date =;
        System.out.println("Date = " + date);
        System.out.println("Year = " + date.getYear());
        System.out.println("Year = " + date.get(ChronoField.YEAR));

        System.out.println("Month= " + date.getMonth().getValue());
        System.out.println("Month= " + date.get(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR));

        System.out.println("Date = " + date.getDayOfMonth());
        System.out.println("Date = " + date.get(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH));

        System.out.println("DOW  = " + date.getDayOfWeek().getValue());
        System.out.println("DOW  = " + date.get(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK) + "\n");

        LocalTime time =;
        System.out.println("Time  = " + time);
        System.out.println("Hour  = " + time.getHour());
        System.out.println("Hour  = " + time.get(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY));

        System.out.println("Minute= " + time.getMinute());
        System.out.println("Minute= " + time.get(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR));

        System.out.println("Second= " + time.getSecond());
        System.out.println("Second= " + time.get(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE));

        System.out.println("Nano  = " + time.getNano());
        System.out.println("Nano  = " + time.get(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND));

The output of the code snippet above are:

Date = 2020-04-20
Year = 2020
Year = 2020
Month= 4
Month= 4
Date = 20
Date = 20
DOW  = 1
DOW  = 1

Time  = 16:06:11.389185
Hour  = 16
Hour  = 16
Minute= 6
Minute= 6
Second= 11
Second= 11
Nano  = 389185000
Nano  = 389185000

How do I get all Sundays of the year in Java?

You need the create a holiday calendar for your application. One of the functionality is to include all Sundays of the year as a holiday for your calendar. The following code snippet will show you how to get all Sundays of the given year. First we need to find the first Sunday of the year using the first 3 lines of code in the main() method. After getting the first Sunday we just need to loop to add 7 days using the Period.ofDays() to the current Sunday to get the next Sunday. We stop the loop when the year of the Sunday is different to the current year.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.Period;
import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter;
import java.time.format.FormatStyle;

import static java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters.firstInMonth;

public class FindAllSundaysOfTheYear {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a LocalDate object that represent the first day of the year.
        int year = 2020;
        LocalDate now = LocalDate.of(year, Month.JANUARY, 1);
        // Find the first Sunday of the year
        LocalDate sunday = now.with(firstInMonth(DayOfWeek.SUNDAY));

        do {
            // Loop to get every Sunday by adding Period.ofDays(7) the the current Sunday.
            sunday =;
        } while (sunday.getYear() == year);

The output of this code snippet are:

Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Sunday, December 6, 2020
Sunday, December 13, 2020
Sunday, December 20, 2020
Sunday, December 27, 2020

How do I get the first Sunday of the year in Java?

The following code snippet help you to find the first Sunday of the year or you can replace it with any day that you want. To achieve this we can use the TemporalAdjusters.firstInMonth adjusters, this adjusters returns a new date in the same month with the first matching day-of-week. This is used for expressions like ‘first Sunday in January’.

Because we want to get the first Sunday of the year first we create a LocalDate which represent the 1st January of 2020. Then we call the with() method and pass the firstInMonth adjusters with the DayOfWeek.SUNDAY to find. Beside using Java 8 date time API, you can also use the old java.util.Calendar class as also shown in the code snippet below. But using the new date time API give you a more readable, simpler and less code to write.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.ZoneId;
import java.util.Calendar;

import static java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters.firstInMonth;

public class FirstSundayOfTheYear {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Get the first Sunday of the year using Java 8 date time
        LocalDate now = LocalDate.of(2020, Month.JANUARY, 1);
        LocalDate sunday = now.with(firstInMonth(DayOfWeek.SUNDAY));
        System.out.println("The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: " + sunday);

        // Get the first Sunday of the year using the old java.util.Calendar
        Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
        calendar.set(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK, Calendar.SUNDAY);
        calendar.set(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH, 1);
        calendar.set(Calendar.MONTH, Calendar.JANUARY);
        calendar.set(Calendar.YEAR, 2020);
        System.out.println("The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: " + calendar.getTime());
        System.out.println("The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: " +
            LocalDate.ofInstant(calendar.getTime().toInstant(), ZoneId.systemDefault()));

This code snippet will print out the following output:

The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: 2020-01-05
The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: Sun Jan 05 04:39:59 CST 2020
The first Sunday of 2020 falls on: 2020-01-05

How do I backup MySQL databases in Ubuntu?

What is MySQL

MySQL is an open-source RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). As the name implied it uses SQL (Structured Query Language) to access and manipulate data. MySQL has been widely used to store and manage data ranging from a simple web application to an enterprise class application.

The important of data in every application require us to regularly backup the data to prevent data loss, for example caused by hardware crashes. In this post I will show you how to backup the database manually and using a script combined with a cron job to run the process automatically.

Using mysqldump

To create a database backup in MySQL we can use the mysqldump command. The example syntax of using this command is:

mysqldump -u username -p database_to_backup > backup_file_name.sql

If you need to restore the database you can use the following command:

mysql -u username -p database_to_restore < backup_file_name.sql

Before you can execute the command you might need to create the database if you don’t already have the it.

saturn@ubuntu:~$ mysql -u root -p
CREATE DATABASE database_to_restore;

Creating Backup Script

To start let’s create MySQL user account that we are going to use to do the backup process. Login to MySQL using mysql -u root -p command. Type and execute the following command to create backupuser.

grant lock tables, select, show view on kodejava.* to 'backupuser'@'localhost' identified by 'backuppasswd';
flush privileges;

Exit from the MySQL using the exit command and create the following backup script called using your favorite editor. For example you can use nano or vim to create the file.


directory="$(date +%Y%m%d)"

if [ ! -d "$directory" ]; then
    mkdir $directory

backup="kodejava-$(date +%Y%m%d%H%M%S)"

mysqldump -ubackupuser -pbackuppasswd --opt kodejava > $backupdir/$backup.sql

cd $directory
tar -czf $backup.tar.gz $backup.sql
rm $backup.sql

To make the file executable you need to run the chmod +x command.

Creating Scheduler Using Crontab

The crontab command is used to schedule commands to be executed periodically at a predetermined time. It will run as a background process without needing user intervention. These kind of jobs is generally referred to as cron jobs and the jobs will run as the user who creates the cron jobs.

In the example below we register a cron job to execute the script at 12:00AM everyday. To edit the cron jobs type crontab -e, this will open the crontab file.

saturn@ubuntu:~$ crontab -e
no crontab for saturn - using an empty one

Select an editor.  To change later, run 'select-editor'.
  1. /bin/ed
  2. /bin/nano        <---- easiest
  3. /usr/bin/vim.basic
  4. /usr/bin/vim.tiny

Choose 1-4 [2]:

Select an editor to edit the crontab, choose by entering the number of the editor. The easiest one is nano but you can also use vim if you comfortable with it.

An you will see an empty crontab file will the following commented messages:

# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
# m h  dom mon dow   command

Go to the end of the file and write the following entry to register a cron job. In the example below we register a cron job to execute the script at 12:00M everyday.

# m h  dom mon dow   command
  0 0   *   *   *    /home/saturn/

After you save the file you can use the crontab -l command to list the registered cron job. If you want to know more about crontab you can visit crontab guru website.

How do I set the time of java.util.Date instance to 00:00:00?

The following code snippet shows you how to remove time information from the java.util.Date object. The static method removeTime() in the code snippet below will take a Date object as parameter and will return a new Date object where the hour, minute, second and millisecond information have been reset to zero. To do this we use the java.util.Calendar. To remove time information we setting the calendar fields of Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY, Calendar.MINUTE, Calendar.SECOND and Calendar.MILLISECOND to zero.

package org.kodejava.example.basic;

import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Date;

public class DateRemoveTime {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Now = " + removeTime(new Date()));

    private static Date removeTime(Date date) {
        Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
        calendar.set(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY, 0);
        calendar.set(Calendar.MINUTE, 0);
        calendar.set(Calendar.SECOND, 0);
        calendar.set(Calendar.MILLISECOND, 0);
        return calendar.getTime();

The result of the code snippet above is:

Now = Thu Oct 24 00:00:00 WITA 2019

How to Install Consolas Font in Mac OS X?

Here are the instructions to install Microsoft Consolas Font on Mac OS X.

  • You need to install brew first.
  • Type-in the following commands.
brew install cabextract
cd ~/Downloads
mkdir Consolas
cd Consolas
curl -LO
cabextract PowerPointViewer.exe
  • Press Install Font button to install the fonts.

How do I clear the current command line in terminal?


You have type a long line of command in terminal. But now you want to clear or delete the entire line. Deleting each character in the command will take sometime and bored you. So are there any keyboard shortcuts that allow you to do this? Yes there are some hotkeys to the rescue.

Hotkeys Description
CTRL + u Delete the current command.
The deleted command will be stored into a buffer.
CTRL + w Delete a word.
CTRL + c Abort what you are typing.
CTRL + d Delete current character.

Other hotkeys that might help you work faster in the terminal.

Hotkeys Description
CTRL + e Move to the end of line.
CTRL + a Move to the start of line.
CTRL + k Cut text from the cursor to the end of line.
CTRL + y Paste the last cut text or buffer.
CTRL + - Undo.
CTRL + b Backward one character.
CTRL + f Forward one character.
ALT + Backward one word.
ALT + Forward one word.

How do I generate random alphanumeric strings?

The following code snippet demonstrates how to use RandomStringGenerator class from the Apache Commons Text library to generate random strings. To create an instance of the generator we can use the RandomStringGenerator.Builder() class build() method. The builder class also helps us to configure the properties of the generator. Before calling the build() method we can set the properties of the builder using the following methods:

  • withinRange() to specifies the minimum and maximum code points allowed in the generated string.
  • filteredBy() to limits the characters in the generated string to those that match at least one of the predicates supplied. Some enum for the predicates: CharacterPredicates.DIGITS, CharacterPredicates.LETTERS.
  • selectFrom() to limits the characters in the generated string to those who match at supplied list of Character.
  • usingRandom() to overrides the default source of randomness.

After configuring and building the generator based the properties defined, we can generate the random strings using the generate() methods of the RandomStringGenerator. There are two methods available:

  • generate​(int length) generates a random string, containing the specified number of code points.
  • generate​(int minLengthInclusive, int maxLengthInclusive) generates a random string, containing between the minimum (inclusive) and the maximum (inclusive) number of code points.

And here is your code snippet:

package org.kodejava.example.commons.text;

import org.apache.commons.text.CharacterPredicates;
import org.apache.commons.text.RandomStringGenerator;

public class RandomStringDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        RandomStringGenerator generator = new RandomStringGenerator.Builder()
            .withinRange('0', 'z')
            .filteredBy(CharacterPredicates.DIGITS, CharacterPredicates.LETTERS)

        for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
            System.out.println(generator.generate(10, 20));

Below are examples of generated random alphanumeric strings:


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