How do I generate random string?

package org.kodejava.example.security;

import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.util.Random;

public class RandomString {
    public static final String SOURCES =
            "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz1234567890";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        RandomString rs = new RandomString();
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new Random(), SOURCES, 10));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new Random(), SOURCES, 10));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new SecureRandom(), SOURCES, 15));
        System.out.println(rs.generateString(new SecureRandom(), SOURCES, 15));
    }

    /**
     * Generate a random string.
     *
     * @param random the random number generator.
     * @param characters the characters for generating string.
     * @param length the length of the generated string.
     * @return
     */
    public String generateString(Random random, String characters, int length) {
        char[] text = new char[length];
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            text[i] = characters.charAt(random.nextInt(characters.length()));
        }
        return new String(text);
    }
}

Example string produced by the code snippets are:

uxEUFqTqS0
vr89vdF4gh
ysYF9XEHhO5FtDf
aBANhrLObZ1XLJi

How do I create a custom TemporalAdjuster?

In this example we are going to learn how to implement a custom TemporalAdjuster. We are going to create TemporalAdjuster to find the next working day from a specified date. We will use 5 working days, from Monday to Friday.

The custom temporal adjuster class should implement the TemporalAdjuster interface, which define a single method that we must implement, the adjustInto(Temporal) method.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
import java.time.temporal.Temporal;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjuster;

public class NextWorkingDayAdjuster implements TemporalAdjuster {
    @Override
    public Temporal adjustInto(Temporal temporal) {
        int field = temporal.get(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);
        DayOfWeek dayOfWeek = DayOfWeek.of(field);

        int daysToAdd = 1;
        if (DayOfWeek.FRIDAY.equals(dayOfWeek)) {
            daysToAdd = 3;
        } else if (DayOfWeek.SATURDAY.equals(dayOfWeek)) {
            daysToAdd = 2;
        }
        return temporal.plus(daysToAdd, ChronoUnit.DAYS);
    }
}

The NextWorkingDayAdjuster move the temporal object a day forward. Except if it is on Friday or Saturday, which will move the temporal object three days or two days forward respectively. This will make it return Monday as the next working day.

After creating the custom adjuster, now let’s create an example that use the NextWorkingDayAdjuster class.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjuster;

public class NextWorkingDayAdjusterDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        TemporalAdjuster nextWorkingDay = new NextWorkingDayAdjuster();

        LocalDate now = LocalDate.now();
        LocalDate nextDay = now.with(nextWorkingDay);
        System.out.println("now            = " + now);
        System.out.println("nextWorkingDay = " + nextDay);

        LocalDate friday = LocalDate.of(2016, Month.MARCH, 11);
        nextDay = friday.with(nextWorkingDay);
        System.out.println("friday         = " + friday);
        System.out.println("nextWorkingDay = " + nextDay);

        LocalDate saturday = LocalDate.of(2016, Month.MARCH, 12);
        nextDay = saturday.with(nextWorkingDay);
        System.out.println("saturday       = " + saturday);
        System.out.println("nextWorkingDay = " + nextDay);
    }
}

And here are the results of our code:

now            = 2016-03-10
nextWorkingDay = 2016-03-11
friday         = 2016-03-11
nextWorkingDay = 2016-03-14
saturday       = 2016-03-12
nextWorkingDay = 2016-03-14

How do I manipulate LocalDate object using TemporalAdjuster?

In the previous example we manipulate the value of LocalDate by adding or subtracting the value of date object by days, months, years using methods like plusMonths() or minusDays(). Or by changing the year or the month of the date object using methods like withYear() or withMonth().

But there are times that we want to manipulate the date object so that we can get the first day of the month or the last day of the month. We want to manipulate the date value to advance the date to the first Monday after the current day or the last the of the year.

To manipulate the date object in this way we can use the with() method and pass a TemporalAdjuster object as an argument. Fortunately, the Date and Time API already provide some commonly used TemporalAdjuster. These TemporalAdjuster are provided as a static factory methods that we can find in the java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters class.

The following example is a code snippet to manipulate the date object using TemporalAdjuster / TemporalAdjusters class.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters;

public class DateManipulationWithTemporalAdjuster {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDate date = LocalDate.now();
        System.out.println("Current date       = " + date);

        LocalDate date1 = date.with(TemporalAdjusters.firstDayOfMonth());
        System.out.println("First day of month = " + date1);

        LocalDate date2 = date.with(TemporalAdjusters.lastDayOfMonth());
        System.out.println("Last day of month  = " + date2);

        LocalDate date3 = date.with(TemporalAdjusters.next(DayOfWeek.MONDAY));
        System.out.println("Next Monday        = " + date3);

        LocalDate date4 = date.with(TemporalAdjusters.lastDayOfYear());
        System.out.println("Last day of year   = " + date4);
    }
}

The result of the code snippet are:

Current date       = 2016-03-06
First day of month = 2016-03-01
Last day of month  = 2016-03-31
Next Monday        = 2016-03-07
Last day of year   = 2016-12-31

The table below shows the complete of static factory method provided by the TemporalAdjusters class.

Method Name Method Description
dayOfWeekInMonth Returns a new date in the same month with the ordinal day-of-week.
firstDayOfMonth Returns a new date set to the first day of the current month.
firstDayOfNextMonth Returns a new date set to the first day of the next month.
firstDayOfNextYear Returns a new date set to the first day of the next year.
firstDayOfYear Returns a new date set to the first day of the current year.
firstInMonth Returns a new date in the same month with the first matching day-of-week.
lastDayOfMonth Returns a new date set to the last day of the current month.
lastDayOfYear Returns a new date set to the last day of the current year.
lastInMonth Returns a new date in the same month with the last matching day-of-week.
next Returns the next day-of-week adjuster.
nextOrSame Returns the next-or-same day-of-week adjuster.
ofDateAdjuster Returns user-written adjuster.
previous Returns the previous day-of-week adjuster.
previousOrSame Returns the previous-or-same day-of-week adjuster.

How do I manipulate the value of LocalDate object?

In the following example we will learn how to manipulate a LocalDate object. There are many methods available for us to change the value of a LocalDate object. For example we can change the year, month and day of LocalDate object. We can use methods like withYear(), withDayOfMonth(), plusYears(), minusMonths(), etc. All these methods will return a new LocalDate object, the original LocalDate will stay unchanged.

Let’s see the following code example for demonstration on how to manipulate the value of LocalDate object.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;

public class LocalDateManipulation {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        absoluteAttributeManipulations();
        relativeAttributeManipulations();
    }

    private static void relativeAttributeManipulations() {
        System.out.println("LocalDateManipulation.relativeAttributeManipulations");
        LocalDate date1 = LocalDate.of(2015, Month.AUGUST, 17);
        LocalDate date2 = date1.minusYears(70);
        LocalDate date3 = date2.plusMonths(10);
        LocalDate date4 = date3.minusDays(15);
        LocalDate date5 = date4.plusWeeks(52);
        LocalDate date6 = date5.minus(52, ChronoUnit.WEEKS);

        System.out.println("of(2015, Month.AUGUST, 17)        => " + date1);
        System.out.println("date1.minusYears(70)              => " + date2);
        System.out.println("date1.plusMonths(10)              => " + date3);
        System.out.println("date3.minusDays(15)               => " + date4);
        System.out.println("date4.plusWeeks(52)               => " + date5);
        System.out.println("date5.minus(52, ChronoUnit.WEEKS) => " + date6);

    }

    private static void absoluteAttributeManipulations() {
        System.out.println("LocalDateManipulation.absoluteAttributeManipulations");
        LocalDate date1 = LocalDate.of(2016, Month.JANUARY, 1);
        LocalDate date2 = date1.withYear(2010);
        LocalDate date3 = date2.withMonth(Month.DECEMBER.getValue());
        LocalDate date4 = date3.withDayOfMonth(15);
        LocalDate date5 = date4.with(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 100);

        System.out.println("of(2016, Month.JANUARY, 1)                 => " + date1);
        System.out.println("date1.withYear(2010)                       => " + date2);
        System.out.println("date2.withMonth(Month.DECEMBER.getValue()) => " + date3);
        System.out.println("date3.withDayOfMonth(15)                   => " + date4);
        System.out.println("date4.with(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 100)   => " + date5);
    }
}

The results of this code snippet are:

LocalDateManipulation.absoluteAttributeManipulations
of(2016, Month.JANUARY, 1)                 => 2016-01-01
date1.withYear(2010)                       => 2010-01-01
date2.withMonth(Month.DECEMBER.getValue()) => 2010-12-01
date3.withDayOfMonth(15)                   => 2010-12-15
date4.with(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 100)   => 2010-04-10

LocalDateManipulation.relativeAttributeManipulations
of(2015, Month.AUGUST, 17)        => 2015-08-17
date1.minusYears(70)              => 1945-08-17
date1.plusMonths(10)              => 1946-06-17
date3.minusDays(15)               => 1946-06-02
date4.plusWeeks(52)               => 1947-06-01
date5.minus(52, ChronoUnit.WEEKS) => 1946-06-02

How to find the difference between two LocalDateTime objects?

In the previous post, How do I find the difference between two times?, we get the difference between two LocalTime objects in seconds measurement. In this example we will get the difference between two LocalDateTime objects and get the difference between these objects in years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;

public class LocalDateTimeDiff {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalDateTime from = LocalDateTime.of(2015, Month.JANUARY, 10, 10, 0, 30);
        LocalDateTime to = LocalDateTime.now();

        LocalDateTime fromTemp = LocalDateTime.from(from);
        long years = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.YEARS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusYears(years);

        long months = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MONTHS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusMonths(months);

        long days = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.DAYS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusDays(days);

        long hours = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.HOURS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusHours(hours);

        long minutes = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MINUTES);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusMinutes(minutes);

        long seconds = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.SECONDS);
        fromTemp = fromTemp.plusSeconds(seconds);

        long millis = fromTemp.until(to, ChronoUnit.MILLIS);

        System.out.println("From = " + from);
        System.out.println("To   = " + to);
        System.out.printf("The difference is %s years, %s months, %s days, " +
                        "%s hours, %s minutes, %s seconds, %s millis",
                years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, millis);
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above when executed is:

From = 2015-01-10T10:00:30
To   = 2016-02-11T17:20:40.503
The difference is 1 years, 1 months, 1 days, 7 hours, 20 minutes, 10 seconds, 503 millis

How do I find the difference between two times?

The following code snippet show you how to find the difference between two time objects represented by LocalTime class. To get the difference between two LocalTime objects we can use the Duration.between() method. This method returns a Duration object, to get the difference in seconds we call the getSeconds() method.

Here a code snippet to demonstrate it.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.*;

public class TimeDifference {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LocalTime start = LocalTime.now();
        LocalTime end = LocalTime.of(16, 59, 55);
        Duration duration = Duration.between(start, end);

        System.out.printf("Seconds between %s and %s is: %s seconds.%n",
                start, end, duration.getSeconds());

        diffLocalDateTime();
        diffInstant();
    }

    /**
     * Difference between two LocalDateTime objects.
     */
    public static void diffLocalDateTime() {
        LocalDateTime dt1 = LocalDateTime.now();
        LocalDateTime dt2 = LocalDateTime.now(ZoneId.of("GMT+0"));
        Duration duration = Duration.between(dt1, dt2);
        System.out.printf("Duration = %s seconds.%n", duration.getSeconds());
    }

    /**
     * Difference between two Instant objects.
     */
    public static void diffInstant() {
        Instant instant1 = Instant.now();
        Instant instant2 = Instant.EPOCH;
        Duration duration = Duration.between(instant1, instant2);
        System.out.printf("Duration = %s seconds.%n", duration.getSeconds());
    }
}

Using the Duration.between() we can also get the difference between two LocalDateTime objects and two Instant object as seen in the diffLocalDateTime() method and diffInstant method in the code snippet above.

The result of the code snippet:

Seconds between 16:58:15.863 and 16:59:55 is: 99 seconds.
Duration = -28800 seconds.
Duration = -1455181096 seconds.

How do I parse negative number in parentheses?

In financial application negative numbers are often represented in parentheses. In this post we will learn how we can parse or convert the negative number in parentheses to produce the represented number value. To parse text / string to a number we can use the java.text.DecimalFormat class.

Beside number in parentheses, in this example we also parse negative number that use the minus sign with the currency symbol like $. Let’s jump to the code snippet below:

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberParse {
    // Pattern for parsing negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        DecimalFormat df = new DecimalFormat(PATTERN1);

        String number1 = "(1000)";
        String number2 = "(1,500.99)";

        System.out.println("number1 = " + df.parse(number1));
        System.out.println("number2 = " + df.parse(number2));

        df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN2);

        String number3 = "-$1000";
        String number4 = "-$1,500.99";

        System.out.println("number3 = " + df.parse(number3));
        System.out.println("number4 = " + df.parse(number4));
    }
}

And here are the results of our code snippet above:

number1 = -1000
number2 = -1500.99
number3 = -1000
number4 = -1500.99

If you need to display or format negative numbers in parentheses you can take a look at the following example How do I display negative number in parentheses?.

How do I display negative number in parentheses?

The code snippet below show us how to display or format negative number in parentheses. We start by defining the number format, the pattern has two parts separated by a semicolon. In the snippet we use the #,##0.00;(#,##0.00) pattern. The pattern after the semicolon will be use to format negative number.

Next we create an instance of DecimalFormat by calling getInstance() method. We apply the the format pattern for the formatter object by calling the applyPattern() method of the DecimalFormat instance. To format the number we simply call the format() method and pass the number we are going to format for display or print out.

package org.kodejava.example.text;

import java.text.DecimalFormat;

public class NegativeNumberFormat {
    // Pattern for formatting negative number.
    public static final String PATTERN1 = "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)";
    public static final String PATTERN2 = "$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DecimalFormat df = (DecimalFormat) DecimalFormat.getInstance();
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN1);

        // Format using parentheses
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(125));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-125));

        // Format using currency symbol and minus sign
        df.applyPattern(PATTERN2);
        System.out.println("Positive: " + df.format(1000));
        System.out.println("Negative: " + df.format(-1000));
    }
}

The result of the code snippet above is:

Positive: 125.00
Negative: (125.00)
Positive: $1,000.00
Negative: -$1,000.00

If you need to parse negative numbers in parentheses to produce the represented number you can see the following example How do I parse negative number in parentheses?.

How do I convert between old Date and Calendar object with the new Java 8 Date Time?

In this example we will learn how to convert the old java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar objects to the new Date Time introduced in Java 8. The first method in the code snippet below dateToNewDate() show conversion of java.util.Date while the calendarToNewDate() show the conversion of java.util.Calendar.

The java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar provide a toInstant() method to convert the objects to the new Date Time API class of the java.time.Instant. To convert the old date into the Java 8 LocalDate, LocalTime and LocalDateTime we first can create an instance of ZonedDateTime using the atZone() method of the Instant class.

ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = instant.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());

From an instance of ZonedDateTime class we can call the toLocalDate(), toLocalTime() and toLocalDateTime() to get instance of LocalDate, LocalTime and LocalDateTime.

To convert back from the new Java 8 date to the old java.util.Date we can use the Date.from() static factory method and passing and instance of java.time.Instant that we can obtains by calling the following code.

Instant instant1 = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant();
Date now1 = Date.from(instant1);

Here are the complete code snippet to convert java.util.Date to the new Java 8 Date Time.

private static void dateToNewDate() {
    Date now = new Date();
    Instant instant = now.toInstant();

    ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = instant.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());

    LocalDate date = zonedDateTime.toLocalDate();
    LocalTime time = zonedDateTime.toLocalTime();
    LocalDateTime dateTime = zonedDateTime.toLocalDateTime();

    Instant instant1 = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant();
    Date now1 = Date.from(instant1);

    System.out.println("java.util.Date          = " + now);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDate     = " + date);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalTime     = " + time);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDateTime = " + dateTime);
    System.out.println("java.util.Date          = " + now1);
    System.out.println();
}

The steps for converting from the java.util.Calendar to the new Java 8 date can be seen in the code snippet below. As with java.util.Date the Calendar class provide toInstant() method to convert the calendar to java.time.Instant object.

Using the LocalDateTime.ofInstant() method we can create a LocalDateTime object from the instant object. By having the LocalDateTime object we can then get an instance of LocalDate and LocalTime by calling the toLocalDate() and toLocalTime() method.

Finally to convert back to java.util.Calendar we can use the GregorianCalendar.from() static factory method which require an instance of ZonedDateTime to be passed as a parameter. To get an instance of ZonedDateTime we can call LocalDateTime.atZone() method. You can see the complete code in the code snippet below.

private static void calendarToNewDate() {
    Calendar now = Calendar.getInstance();

    LocalDateTime dateTime = LocalDateTime.ofInstant(now.toInstant(),
            ZoneId.systemDefault());

    LocalDate date = dateTime.toLocalDate();
    LocalTime time = dateTime.toLocalTime();

    ZonedDateTime zonedDateTime = dateTime.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
    Calendar now1 = GregorianCalendar.from(zonedDateTime);

    System.out.println("java.util.Calendar      = " + now);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDateTime = " + dateTime);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalDate     = " + date);
    System.out.println("java.time.LocalTime     = " + time);
    System.out.println("java.util.Calendar      = " + now1);
}

Below is the main Java class to run the code snippet. You must place the above methods inside this class to run the code snippet.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.*;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.GregorianCalendar;

public class LegacyDateCalendarToNewDateExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        dateToNewDate();
        calendarToNewDate();
    }
}

Here are the result of the code snippet above. The first group is conversion the java.util.Date to the new Date Time API. The second group is conversion from the java.util.Calendar to the new Date Time API.

java.util.Date          = Mon Feb 01 11:09:55 WITA 2016
java.time.LocalDate     = 2016-02-01
java.time.LocalTime     = 11:09:55.746
java.time.LocalDateTime = 2016-02-01T11:09:55.746
java.util.Date          = Mon Feb 01 11:09:55 WITA 2016

java.util.Calendar      = java.util.GregorianCalendar[time=1454296195871,areFieldsSet=true,areAllFieldsSet=true,lenient=true,zone=sun.util.calendar.ZoneInfo[id="Asia/Makassar",offset=28800000,dstSavings=0,useDaylight=false,transitions=5,lastRule=null],firstDayOfWeek=1,minimalDaysInFirstWeek=1,ERA=1,YEAR=2016,MONTH=1,WEEK_OF_YEAR=6,WEEK_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_YEAR=32,DAY_OF_WEEK=2,DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH=1,AM_PM=0,HOUR=11,HOUR_OF_DAY=11,MINUTE=9,SECOND=55,MILLISECOND=871,ZONE_OFFSET=28800000,DST_OFFSET=0]
java.time.LocalDateTime = 2016-02-01T11:09:55.871
java.time.LocalDate     = 2016-02-01
java.time.LocalTime     = 11:09:55.871
java.util.Calendar      = java.util.GregorianCalendar[time=1454296195871,areFieldsSet=true,areAllFieldsSet=true,lenient=true,zone=sun.util.calendar.ZoneInfo[id="Asia/Makassar",offset=28800000,dstSavings=0,useDaylight=false,transitions=5,lastRule=null],firstDayOfWeek=2,minimalDaysInFirstWeek=4,ERA=1,YEAR=2016,MONTH=1,WEEK_OF_YEAR=5,WEEK_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_MONTH=1,DAY_OF_YEAR=32,DAY_OF_WEEK=2,DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH=1,AM_PM=0,HOUR=11,HOUR_OF_DAY=11,MINUTE=9,SECOND=55,MILLISECOND=871,ZONE_OFFSET=28800000,DST_OFFSET=0]

How do I get the date of the first particular day after a specific date?

In this example we will learn how to get the date of the first particular day that fall after a specific date. In the code snippet below we will find the first Friday that fall after the new year of 2016. First let’s create a LocalDate object that represent the new year of 2016. We can use LocalDate.of() factory method to create the date object.

To get the first occurrence of a specific day-of-week from a date we create a TemporalAdjuster using the TemporalAdjusters.next() method and pass the day-of-week, in this case we pass DayOfWeek.FRIDAY.

After that we create another LocalDate that will hold the next Friday date. The get the date for the next Friday we call newYear.with() method and pass the TemporalAdjuster that we have created earlier.

Now, let’s try the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.example.datetime;

import java.time.DayOfWeek;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjuster;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters;

public class GetFirstDayAfterDate {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //
        // Obtains the current date.
        //
        LocalDate newYear = LocalDate.of(2016, Month.JANUARY, 1);
        System.out.println("New Year = " + newYear);

        //
        // Gets the next Friday.
        //
        TemporalAdjuster nextFriday = TemporalAdjusters.next(DayOfWeek.FRIDAY);
        LocalDate nextFridayDate = newYear.with(nextFriday);
        System.out.printf("The first Friday after the new year of %s is %s%n", 
                newYear, nextFriday);
    }
}

The code snippet will print out the following result:

New Year = 2016-01-01
The first Friday after the new year of 2016-01-01 is 2016-01-08