How do I implement equals() and hashCode() method using java.util.Objects?

This example will show you how to implement the equals() and hashCode() object using java.util.Objects class. The Objects class provides a set of utility methods to work with object such as comparing two objects for equality and calculating the hashcode. Other methods include object null check methods, object to string method, etc.

To demonstrate equals() and hash() methods we’ll create a simple POJO called Student with a couple of properties such as id, name and dateOfBirth.

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.util.Objects;

public class Student {
    private Long id;
    private String name;
    private LocalDate dateOfBirth;

    public Student() {
    }

    public Student(Long id, String name, LocalDate dateOfBirth) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public LocalDate getDateOfBirth() {
        return dateOfBirth;
    }

    public void setDateOfBirth(LocalDate dateOfBirth) {
        this.dateOfBirth = dateOfBirth;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (this == o) return true;
        if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;

        Student that = (Student) o;
        return Objects.equals(this.id, that.id)
                && Objects.equals(this.name, that.name)
                && Objects.equals(this.dateOfBirth, that.dateOfBirth);
    }

    @Override
    public int hashCode() {
        return Objects.hash(id, name, dateOfBirth);
    }
}

Using the Objects.equals() and Objects.hash() methods in the Student class makes the implementation of the equals() method and the hashCode() method concise, easy to read and to understand. The Objects utility class will operate in a null-safe way which means that it will check for a null fields of the object.

The code snippet below will demonstrate the use of Student class. Which will compare objects using the equals() method and print out the calculated hashcode of the object.

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Month;

public class EqualsHashCodeExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Student student1 = new Student(1L, "Alice", LocalDate.of(1990, Month.APRIL, 1));
        Student student2 = new Student(1L, "Alice", LocalDate.of(1990, Month.APRIL, 1));
        Student student3 = new Student(2L, "Bob", LocalDate.of(1992, Month.DECEMBER, 21));

        System.out.println("student1.equals(student2) = " + student1.equals(student2));
        System.out.println("student1.equals(student3) = " + student1.equals(student3));
        System.out.println("student1.hashCode() = " + student1.hashCode());
        System.out.println("student2.hashCode() = " + student2.hashCode());
        System.out.println("student3.hashCode() = " + student3.hashCode());
    }
}



And here are the result of the code snippet above:

student1.equals(student2) = true
student1.equals(student3) = false
student1.hashCode() = 1967967937
student2.hashCode() = 1967967937
student3.hashCode() = 6188033

Another approach for implementing the equals() and hashCode() method is using the Apache Commons Lang library. And example of it can be seen here: How to implement the hashCode and equals method using Apache Commons?.

How can I insert an element in array at a given position?

As we know an array in Java is a fixed-size object, once it created its size cannot be changed. So if you want to have a resizable array-like object where you can insert an element at a given position you can use a java.util.List object type instead.

This example will show you how you can achieve array insert using the java.util.List and java.util.ArrayList object. Let see the code snippet below.

package org.kodejava.example.util;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class ArrayInsert {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Creates an array of integer value and prints the 
        // original values.
        Integer[] numbers = new Integer[]{1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 21};
        System.out.println("Original numbers: " + 
                Arrays.toString(numbers));

        // Creates an ArrayList object and add the entire content
        // of numbers array into the list. We use the 
        // add(index, element) method to add element=5 at index=3.
        List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<>();
        list.addAll(Arrays.asList(numbers));
        list.add(3, 5);

        // Converts back the list into array object and prints 
        // the new values.
        numbers = list.toArray(new Integer[list.size()]);
        System.out.println("After insert    : " + Arrays.toString(numbers));
    }
}

In the code snippet above the original array of Integer numbers will be converted into a List, in this case we use an ArrayList, by adding all elements of the array into the list using the List.addAll() method. The Arrays.asList() can be use to convert an array into a collection type object.

Next we insert a new element into the List using the add(int index, E element) method. Where index is the insert / add position and element is the element to be inserted. After the new element inserted we convert the List back to the original array.

Below is the result of the code snippet above:

Original numbers: [1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 21]
After insert    : [1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21]